IAG Newsletter

 

 

Ole Baltazar Andersen

IAG Central Bureau, Department of Geophysics, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark

e-mail: iag@gfy.ku.dk; Fax: +45 3536 5357; URL:http://www.gfy.ku.dk/~iag/

 

The IAG Newsletter is under the editorial responsibility of the IAG Central Bureau. It is an open forum and contributors are welcome to send material (preferably in electronic form) to the IAG Central Bureau. These contributions should complement information sent by IAG officials or by IAG symposia organizers (reports and announcements).

Each IAG Newsletter includes several of the following topics:

I     general information

II.   reports of IAG symposia

III. reports by commissions, special commissions or study groups

IV. symposia announcements

V.   book reviews

VI. fast bibliography

 

Books for review are the responsibility of:

Christian Tiberius

TU Delft, Faculty of CEG,

Dept. of Mathematical geodesy and positioning

P.O.Box 5030 - NL 2600 GA Delft - The Netherlands

Fax: (+31) 15 27 83 711

E-mail: c.c.j.m.tiberius@geo.tudelft.nl

 

 

Meeting Announcement

 

1st International Symposium on Robust Statistics and Fuzzy Techniques in Geodesy and GIS

March 12-16, 2001

Zurich, Switzerland

 

Contact: sek@geod.baug.ethz.ch

Web-site: http://www.gis.ethz.ch/iag

 

1st Announcement and Call for Papers are now available

 

 

 


Conference on Optical 3-D Measurement Techniques

October 2001, Vienna, Austria.

 

The Symposium is co-sponsored by the ISPRS Commission V, the FIG, commission 5 and 6, and the IAG Special Commission 4.

 

Please visit as well the Conference web page: http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ingeo/optical3d/o3d.htm

 

 

Meeting Reports

Minutes of the Organizational Meeting for African Reference System "AFREF"

Held April 27, 2000, Centre Universitaire Mediterranean (CUM), Nice, France

 

Meeting Objective:

Discuss possible organization of a project to establish a common geodetic reference system throughout Africa compatible with the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRF). Discuss ways to involve the international geodesy community to work with African nations to develop a single, uniform, continental geodetic reference

system meeting international standards to replace the myriad national reference systems, many of which have not been maintained, and are out of date and inaccurate.

 

Meeting Organization:

Called by Claude Boucher, head of Commission X of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG)  "Global and Regional Networks", also head of the ITRF and the representative of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) to the International GPS Service (IGS).  The IGS is active globally in supporting the mission of the IAG & IERS/ITRF through the techniques and applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS).  GPS is the most economical and widely accessible modern geodetic technology for realizing a continental reference network throughout Africa.

 

Executive Summary

The decision was taken at this preliminary meeting to pursue the coordination of a project designated "AFREF", the objective of which is to establish a continental, robust and homogenous geodetic reference system throughout Africa.  Africa remains the only continent with paucity of satellite geodetic measurements, especially GPS observations, either episodic, or continuous. There are a few notable exceptions: locations in South Africa, single stations in Malindi, Kenya; Mas Palomas, Canary Islands, Spain; Libreville, Gabon and at previous times a station each in Ghana and Cote 'd Ivorie.

Difficulties of in-country support, communications, reliable infrastructure and lack of resources hinder permanent, high quality GPS station implementations a Helwan, Egypt; Adis Ababa, Ethiopia; Rabat, Morocco; and Kampala, Uganda, for example, where equipment have been installed.

This meeting and earlier ad-hoc discussions have highlighted the importance of a renewed effort to realize a reference system for this continent through international collaboration directly with the African nations.  It was emphasized that the must truly be a joint effort with Africans to be successful and that it must focus on the

transfer of appropriate technology to sustain the references with modern instrumentation, e.g. GPS and other satellite techniques.  It is also noted that resources will be required to enable organizational participation and project activities (e.g. travel, equipment, technical support, etc.)

The meeting attendees agreed to further explore and pursue a joint project 'AFREF' with the Africans and other international partners, and that such a project should:

1.        Support and ensure the fundamental basis for the national 3-d reference networks for today and in the future through a continental African geodetic network fully consistent and homogeneous with the global reference frame of the ITRF.

2.        Establish continuous, permanent GPS stations such that each nation or each user has free access (and at least within 1000km) of such stations.

3.        Provide a sustainable development environment for technology transfer, so that these activities will enhance the national networks and numerous applications with readily available technology

4.        Understand the necessary geodetic requirements of participating national and international agencies.

5.        Assist in establishing in-country expertise for implementation, operations, processing and analyses of modern geodetic techniques, primarily GPS.

Ruth Neilan, acknowledging contributions from Jim Slater

 

Book Review.

 

 

Geostatistics - Modeling Spatial Uncertainty

 

title:                  Geostatistics Modeling Spatial Uncertainty

authors:                       Jean-Paul Chilès and Pierre Delfiner

publisher:        John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York

ISBN:               0-471-08315-1

year:                1999

price:               GBP 80.95

pages:             695

size:                16 x 24 cm

details:             hard cover

 

This book gives a full account of geostatistics, in a very wide sense. Geostatistics is a modern way of dealing with spatial uncertainty. It analyzes spatial variability of mainly continuous variables that are tied to their location in space and it is in a sense close to collocation techniques. The science originated from mining in the 1960s and 1970s and has now found a wide acceptance in many environmental and earth science disciplines. On the one hand it has a strong statistical and probabilistic background, but on the other hand the practical applications are important, motivating and in fact up-front. It essentially deals with spatial data, their meaning and interpretation, their collection, prediction, interpolation and simulation. All these topics are covered in this volume. The authors are very well known in this discipline. Both originate from the French Ecole des mines, in Fontainebleau, where the main origin for geostatistics can be found. At the moment the authors have different positions, Delfiner at the Total Exploration Production and Chilès at the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières. It stresses the wide applicability of the theoretical concepts in modern applied science. There has been an obvious need for a book like this. The book of Cressie [1] is impressive in its width, covering as well point patterns, image analysis and random objects. The current volume covers in much detail just geostatistics. Moreover, it has been the French spirit that for a large part has made the science, and this book covers most of its essentials. The book is really a standard in the field: it does not so much cover new theory, but it gives an overview of the methods illustrated by a wide range of applications.

The book contains eight chapters. After a first introductory chapter, it treats structural analysis, i.e. estimation and modeling of the variogram, one particular spatial structure function. The next chapter deals with kriging, the main spatial prediction procedure. Kriging is similar to prediction with a linear model using dependent observations, but it is in this text mainly treated using Lagrange multipliers. The next chapter is on intrinsic random functions to deal with non-stationarity in the data. Chapter 5 then deals with multivariate issues like cokriging cross-covariance functions. A chapter on nonlinear methods follows this chapter, in particular on disjunctive kriging. The next chapter is on spatial simulations. This important issue is now for the first time treated in much detail. The final chapter briefly deals with issues that are currently being researched: scale effects and inverse problems. This structure is entirely logical, and ranges from actual analysis of the spatial structure of the data to using the data to interpolate and simulate, first in a straightforward and easy way, thereafter at an increasingly elaborate fashion.

The book covers much of modern geostatistics, but not all. Of course, the boundary between what should be included as geostatistics and what shouldnt is rather arbitrary. But the table of contents is close to the topics that were treated in [1]. The linear model is largely absent, but also the issue of spatial sampling is somewhat outdated. Modern developments in optimizing spatial designs given an objective of research are absent. This somehow reflects the long process that it took the writers to write the book. I wonder whether it would have been much different if it had appeared say ten years ago. Possibly some of chapter 7 (conditional simulations) wouldnt have been present, but the remainder was at that time already available in the international literature. But this literature is admittedly, sometimes hard to access, and the book does a wonderful job in summarizing all this literature in one volume.

The book aims at anyone really interested in geostatistics. It has an almost complete coverage of almost everything that matters in geostatistics. I would certainly not hesitate to commend reading it to students in many earth and environmental science disciplines, any statistician with an open mind towards spatial problems and I would enjoy using the book as a handout during a course to practitioners who face spatial problems in their work. It is more mathematical, though, than [2], but more coherent and transparent than [1].

The text is relatively easy to follow, thanks to the excellent layout of the modern Wiley volumes. A very nice illustration concerns the Channel tunnel, but many other illustrative examples document the mathematical procedures. The book contains no exercises, the many illustrations are in black-and-white or in gray shading. The book contains a reference list of 36 pages, with some bias towards the French literature for example the contributions by Matheron cover more than two pages, most of these being in French and available only from the Centre de Géostatistique. But it is now for the first time that an overview of his extremely important contributions on this topic is given.

I found the book of the very highest quality.  This is a book that the geostatistical community has been waiting for since long. In particular the chapter on conditional simulations is excellent and deserves a careful study by anyone interested in modeling spatial uncertainty. I can recommend anyone interested in geostatistics to get the volume, it be really worth spending. The only drawback is that by times it is not anymore up-to-date. But I think that for a standard work on the topic this is irrelevant. I am convinced that it will be the volume to cite in the next decade or more.

[1] Cressie, N.A.C. 1993. Statistics for spatial data. Wiley, New York.

[2] Isaaks, E.H., Srivastava. R.M. 1989. An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York.

 

Alfred Stein

Wageningen University, ITC Int Inst for Aerial Surveys and Earth Sciences

 

 

Fast Bibliography.

 

This time the fast bibliography consists of a listing of papers relevant to Geod. that has been collected by the IAG bibliographic service since previous issue of the fast bibliography (JG73/11).

The IAG bibliographic service is based on the literary data bank GEOPHOKA, which is maintained by IfAG at the Branch Office Leipzig, Leipzig Zentrale technisch - wissenschaftliche Angelegenheiten, Bibliothek, Karl - Rothe-Strasse 10-14, 04105 Leipzig, Germany

This version of the fast bibliography consists of entries in this database over the last 6 month, as the base has been unavailable for a period due to a year 2000 problem . The IAG bibliographic service can be reached at the following Internet address: http://www.leipzig.ifag.de. The bibliographic services are furthermore reachable through the homepage of IAG.

 

Ahrens, B. Bezugssysteme bei der Kombination von GPS- und terrestrischen Beobachtungen : das Konzept fuer 3D- und 2D-Auswertungen im TP- und AP-Feld in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Vermessungsingenieur, 51,1, pp. 2-9, Wiesbaden, 2000.

Ahrens, B. KATRIN, 20 Jahre jung. - zur Weiterentwicklung des Programmsystems 1996 bis 1998, Nachr. Oeffentl. Vermess.dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, 32,2, pp. 81-98, Bonn, 1999.

Albertella, A., Sanso, F., Sneeuw, N. Band-limited functions an a bounded spherical domain : the Slepian problem on the sphere, J. geod., Vol. 73, Nr. 9, pp. 436-447, Berlin, 1999.

Alex, N., Einarsson, P., Heinert, M., Niemeier, W., Ritter, B., Sigmundsson, F., Willgalis, S. GPS-Messkampagne 1995 zur Bestimmung von Deformationen der Erdkruste in Suedwestisland, Z. Vermess.wes., 124,12, pp. 377-388, Stuttgart, 1999.

Altiner, Y., Colic, K., Marjanovic, M., Medic, Z., Medved, M., Miskovic, D., Piribicevic, B., Rasic, L., Seeger, H., Szabo, M. Is the Adria a promontory or exists as an independent microplate?, Rep. geod., Nr. 5(46), pp. 149-157, Warszawa, 1999.

Amaduzzi, S. MAPFinder, a GIS application integrating cartography, GPS, road networks and portable computers for fleet management, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 151-154, Warszawa, 1999.

Amodeo, A., Marchionna, A. The road cadaster project in Italy, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 129-131, Warszawa, 1999.

Ampelas, A., Daguerregaray, M. Paris public transit : the GPS difference, GPS World, 10,10, S. 36-38, 40, Oregon, 1999.

Angus, J. Toward computation of exact horizontal protection limits for satellite-based navigation systems, Navigation : j. Inst. Navig., Virginia 46(Herbst,)3, pp. 217-225, Alexandria, 1999.

Atkinson, N., Allan, A. Back to basics (16) : least squares, statistics and all that, Survey rev., Vol. 35, No. 274, pp. 265-276, London, 1999.

Atkinson, N., Allan, A. Back to basics (17) : least squares, statistics and all that, Survey rev., Vol. 35, No. 275, pp. 356-363, London, 2000.

Augath, W. Ueber die Zukunft der satellitengestuetzten Positionierung, Beitrag zum 49. DVW-Seminar am 28. und 29. September 1999 an der TU Dresden, Bd. 37, pp. 10-23, Stuttgart, 1999.

Balmino, G. The Bureau Gravimetrique International from 1979 to 1999, Bull. inf., Nr. 85, pp. 31-58, Toulouse, 2000.

Barlik, M. Investigation of the geoid heights using vertical gradient anomalies near Grybow (Cracow district), Rep. geod., Nr. 4(45), pp. 173-190, Warszawa, 1999.

Bartoszak, J., Butkiewicz, E., Schillak, S. Status report on the Borowiec SLR 1997-1998, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 97-103, Frankfurt, 1999.

Baustert, G., Koening, R. Low flyer acquisition data : some strategies and problems, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 549-554, Frankfurt, 1999.

Becker, M., Angermann, D. Untersuchungen zur Genauigkeit und systematischen Effekten in grossraeumigen GPS-Netzen am Beispiel von GEODYSSEA, Z. Vermess.wes., 125,3, pp. 88-95, Stuttgart, 2000.

Becker, M., Angermann, D., Michel, G., Wilson, P. Seismische Deformation und Krustenextrusion : Interpretation der GEODYSSEA GPS-Loesungen, Z. Vermess.wes., 125,3, pp. 80-88, Stuttgart, 2000.

Becker, M., Angermann, D., Nordin, S., Reigber, C., Reinhart, E. Das Geschwindigkeitsfeld in Suedostasien aus einer kombinierten GPS Loesung der drei GEODYSSEA Kampagnen von 1994 bis 1998, Z. Vermess.wes., 125,3, pp. 74-80, Stuttgart, 2000.

Becker, M., Berrino, G., Camacho, A., Falk, R., Francis, O., Gagnon, C., Gerstenecker, C., Nowak, I., Richter, B., Wilmes, H. Results of relative gravimeter measurements at the ICAG97 Intercomparison, Bull. inf., Nr. 85, pp. 61-72, Toulouse, 2000.

Becker, M., Reinhart, E., Boonphakdee, C., Mingsamon, S., Abu, S. Realisation des ITRS in Thailand und Malaysia durch ein kombiniertes Netz fuer Geokinematik und Landesvermessung, Z. Vermess.wes., 125,3, pp. 95-99, Stuttgart, 2000.

Becker, M., Reinhart, E., Neumaier, P., Seeger, H., Rus, T., Ghitau, D., Marcu, C., Radulescu, F., Rosca, V. German and Romanian activities in the frame of the CERGOP : technical report, Mitt. Bundesamtes Kartogr. Geod., am Main, Bd. 12, pp. 5-63, Frankfurt, 1999.

Beckers, H., Kupp, W., Rompf, H., Schoenwetter, W. Koennen GPS-Verfahren zur Hoehenbestimmung von Nivellementpunkten 4. Ordnung in Rheinland-Pfalz genutzt werden?, Nachr.bl. Vermess.- Katasterverwalt. Rheinl.-Pfalz, 42,2, pp. 81-108, Koblenz, 1999.

Benedicto, J., Michel, P., Ventura-Traveset, J., Maier, T. EGNOS - European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service : basic technical background, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 267-275, Warszawa, 1999.

Benes, F. Soucasny stav vyskovych geodetickych zakladu, Geod. kartogr. obzor, 45,6, pp. 113-117, Praha, 1999.

Berlasso, G., Cefalo, R., Manzoni, G., Sluga, T. Landslide monitoring by means of geodetic GPS, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 189-197, Warszawa, 1999.

Bianco, G. Two-color renging upgrade for the MLRO system, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 346-352, Frankfurt, 1999.

Bianco, G., Selden, M., Bieneman, M., Clarke, C., McClure, D., Moon, D., Nallappa, B., Oldham, T., Stringfellow, R. MLRO system progress report, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 438-444, Frankfurt, 1999.

Blinken, R. Bestimmung von Geoid und Meerestopographie aus Altimeterdaten mittels der Adjungierten Methode, Geodaesie ; 2, : Shaker, 102 pp. : Abb., Lit., Aachen, 1999.  Boeder, V., Seeber, G. Praezise Positionsbestimmung mit GNSS und INS in der Hydrographie, Beitrag zum 49. DVW-Seminar am 28. und 29. September 1999 an der TU Dresden, Bd. 37, pp. 36-52, Stuttgart, 1999.

Boeer, A., Hessels, U. Two color laser ranging with the TIGO SLR System : status and first results, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 353-358, Frankfurt, 1999.

Bogdanov, V., Medvedev, M., Solodov, V., Trapeznikov, Y., Troshkov, G., Trubitsina, A. Mean monthly series of sea level observations (1777-1993) at the Kronstadt gauge, Suomen Geod. Laitoksen Tiedonantoja,1, 34 pp., Kirkkonummi, 2000.

Bogusz, J., Figurski, M., Krucsyk, M., Kujawa, L., Kurka, W., Rogowski, J. Activities of Astro-geodetic Observatory in Jozefoslaw in 1998, Rep. geod., Nr. 4(45), pp. 69-78, Warszawa, 1999.

Bogusz, J., Figurski, M., Kujawa, L., Kurka, W., Rogowski, J., Lehman, M. Some results of permanent GPS data processing performed by WUT EUREF Local Analysis Centre, Rep. geod., Nr. 5(46), pp. 189-194, Warszawa, 1999.

Bogusz, J., Kujawa, L., Kurka, W., Rogowski, J., Szolucha, M., Korcz, M., Leszczynski, W. Some experiences on real-time kinematic and differential GPS applications to naval and bathymetric aims, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 199-207, Warszawa, 1999.

Bogusz, J., Kujawa, L., Kurka, W., Rogowski, J., Szolucha, M., Korcz, M., Leszczynski, W., Poplawski, T. Some aspects of usage of GPS system in naval application, Rep. geod., Nr. 4(45), pp. 135-143, Warszawa, 1999.

Bogusz, J., Kujawa, L., Rogowski, J., Korcz, M., Leszczynski, W., Szolucha, M. Application of RTK to ships manoeuvre, Rep. geod., Nr. 5(46), pp. 71-78, Warszawa, 1999.

Bohnenstingl, K. Aufnahme exzentrisch liegender Objektpunkte bei GPS-Echtzeitmessungen, Vermessungsingenieur, 50,5, pp. 316, Wiesbaden, 1999.

Bollweg, A. Water management of the river Rhine : water level from laser altimetry, GIM International : worldwide mag. geomatics, S. 30-33, 13,11, 1999.

Bortolozzo, A., Guarnieri, A., Vettore, A. GeoVision : a digital photogrammetric software for road survey, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 155-164, Warszawa, 1999.

Borza, T., Fejes, I. GPS interference in Hungary, Rep. geod., Nr. 5(46), pp. 215-221, Warszawa, 1999.

Bourgon, S., Santerre, R. Introduction au systeme des positionnement russe GLONASS, Geomatique, 25,3, pp. 6-9, Quebec, 1998.

Buga, A. Globalines padeties sistemos palydovu signalu velavimas del jonosferos poveikio, Geod. kartogr., 25,4, pp. 150-155, Vilnius, 1999.

Bulmer, M., Johnston, A., Engle, F., Salas, G. A volcano's history maps its future : topo surveys characterize Sabancaya geology, GPS World, 10,11, S. 20-26, 28, 30, Oregon, 1999.

Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie (Hrsg.). Fachwoerterbuch : Bennennungen und Definitionen im deutschen Vermessungswesen mit englischen und franzoesischen Aequivalenten. Bd. 11. Hydrographische Vermessung, am Main, 137 pp., Frankfurt, 1999.

Burmistrov, V., Parkhomenko, N., Pliev, L., Shargorodsky, V., Soyuzova, N., Valiliev, V. The WESTPAC satellite : design features and first results of return signal analysis, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 297-316, Frankfurt, 1999.

Burmistrov, V., Pliev, L., Shargorodsky, V., Vasiliev, V. Retroreflector array on board of the ZEYA satellite : design features and observation results, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 320-335, Frankfurt, 1999.

Bursa, M., Kouba, J., Kumar, M., Mueller, A., Radej, K., True, S., Vatrt, V., Vojtiskova, M. Geoidal geopotential and Worls Height System, Studia geophys. geod., 43,4, pp. 327-337, Praha, 1999.

Bursa, M., Kouba, J., Radej, K., Vatrt, V., Vojtiskova, M., True, S. Determination of the geopotential at the tide gauge defining the North American Vertical Datum 1988 (NAVD88), Geomatica, 53,3, pp. 291-296, Ottawa, 1999.

Buzelis, R., Kosenko, J., Murauskas, E., Lapushka, K. Q-switeched SBS-compressed ND:YAG laser for satellite ranging, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 476-480, Frankfurt, 1999.

Caporali, A. The Italian network of permanent GPS stations, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 165-168, Warszawa, 1999.

Caroti, G., Manzoni, G. Satellite positioning and laser profiling for road survey, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 133-138, Warszawa, 1999.

Casella, V. Introduction to airborne laser scanning, a GPS-INS based technique, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 249-254, Warszawa, 1999.

Cech, M., Hamel, K., Jelinkova, H., Novotny, A., Prochazka, I., Helali, Y., Tawadros, M. Upgrading of the Helwan laser station (1997-98), Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 197-200, Frankfurt, 1999.

Cefalo, R., Manzoni, G., Sluga, T. Kinematic DGNSS feasibility and applications, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 181-188, Warszawa, 1999.

Cen, M. The deformation monitoring for main tower top by GPS in suspension bridge construction, Geotech. invest. survey.,3,158, pp. 46-49, Peking, 1999.

Chao, D., Xu, C., Liu, D. Finite element method of four-dimensional integrated geodesy, Acta geod. cartogr. Sinica (select. papers Engl. ed.), 1997, pp. 10-19, Beijing, 1997.

Chen, J., Chang, G., Lee, Y., Zhen, Z. An improved local goid in the Mt. Everest area, Z. Vermess.wes., 124,11, pp. 362-363, Stuttgart, 1999.

Chen, J., Li, J. The several technical problems on computing the high resolution and high accuracy quasi-geoid in China, J. Wuhan Techn. Univ. Survey. Mapp., 23,2, pp. 95-99, 100, Wuhan, 1998.

Chen, J., Shum, C., Wilson, C., Chambers, D., Tapley, B. Seasonal sea level change from TOPEX/Poseidon observation and thermal distribution, J. geod., Vol. 73, Nr. 12, pp. 638-647, Berlin, 2000.

Chen, L. Error analysis of building gradient monitoring with total station, Geotech. invest. survey.,6,161, pp. 51-54, Peking, 1999.

Chen, X., Liu, J., Li, D. OTF method and its practice on airborne GPS data processing for photogrammetry, Acta geod. cartogr. Sinica (select. papers Engl. ed.), 1997, pp. 35-44, Beijing, 1997.

Chen, Y., Lutes, J. Development of the methodology for single epoch GPS deformation monitoring, J. Wuhan Techn. Univ. Survey. Mapp., 23,4, pp. 324-328, Wuhan, 1998.

Chowdhury, I., Hossain, T. Rural road survey with GPS : an exercise in development, GPS World, 11,3, S. 44-49, Oregon, 2000.

Cisak, J., Krynski, J., Witowski, T. Hourly data upload at BOGO Permanent GPS Station and preliminary attempt toward estimate the quality of collected data, Rep. geod., Nr. 5(46), pp. 115-125, Warszawa, 1999.

Conklin, B., Mann, A., McGarry, J. SLR2000 Data ANalysis computer (DAN), Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 564-568, Frankfurt, 1999.

Corbeanu, H., Brikowski, T., Aiken, C., Enoiu, P. Landslide monitoring in Romania, GPS World, 11,3, S. 38-42, Oregon, 2000.

Cramer, M., Haala, N. Direct exterior orientation of airborne sensors : an accuracy investigation into an integrated GPS/inertial system, GIM International : worldwide mag. geomatics, S. 46-49, 13,9, 1999.

Crisman, B., Cefalo, R., Tinta, L. Road vehicle overtaking manoeuvres trajectory, Rep. geod., Nr. 3(44), pp. 139-150, Warszawa, 1999.

Croll, S. Receiver and antenna surveys, GPS World, 11,1, S. 34-54, Oregon, 2000.

Csapo, G. Effect of vertical gravity gradient on the accuracy of gravimeter measurements based on Hungarian data, Geophys. transact., Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Nov., pp. 67-81, Budapest, 1999.

Csapo, G., Gazso, M., Kenyeres, A. Relationship between reliability of the Hungarian part of the geoid and the spatial distribution of gravity data, Geophys. transact., Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Nov., pp. 83-103, Budapest, 1999.

Dai Honglei. The analysis of the accuracy on line segment objective, Geotech. invest. survey.,5,160, pp. 44-46, Peking, 1999.

Dai, H., Liu, W., Xu, P. The visualization model of positional uncertainties for random polyline in vector GIS, Acta geod. cartogr. Sinica, 28,3, pp. 239-243, Beijing, 1999.

Dai, H., Xu, P., Du, D. The analyses of the positional error propagation in overlay operation of polygon under GIS environment, Acta geod. cartogr. Sinica, 28,2, pp. 148-152, Beijing, 1999.

Dai, H., Xu, P., Lu, X. The variance estimation of corresponding lines in GIS overlay operation, J. Wuhan Techn. Univ. Survey. Mapp., 23,1, pp. 14-17, Wuhan, 1998.

Davis, M., Gilbreath, G., Snyder, G., Rolsma, P., Georges, j., Eichinger, R. NRLaSOR SLR observation verification techniques using Lageos, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 10, am Main, pp. 232-244, Frankfurt, 1999.

Dede, K., Szabo, M., Szuecs, L. Local geoid determination by GPS and levelling for oil field of Algyoe, Rep. geod., Nr. 5(46), pp. 97-102, Warszawa, 1999.

Degnan, J. SLR2000 project : engineering overview and status, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 389-398, Frankfurt, 1999.

Degnan, J., McGarry, J., Dabney, P., Zagwodzki, T., Tierney, M., Weatherly, M. Design and test of a breadboard interplanetary laser transponder, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 716-728, Frankfurt, 1999.

Degnan, J., Zayhowski, J. SLR2000 microlaser performance : theory vs experiment, Mitteilungen des Bundesamtes fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie ; 11, am Main, pp. 458-468, Frankfurt, 1999.

DeLoach, S. Implantacion de un sistema internacional de referencia de altitudes para hidrografia, Topogr. cartogr., Vol. 16, Nr. 93, pp. 458-60, 62-64, 66-67, Madrid, 1999.

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