STATUTES AND BY-LAWS
I- Definition and objectives of the International Association of Geodesy
1. The International Association of Geodesy, hereafter called the Association, is one of the constituent associations of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, hereafter called the Union.
2. The objectives of the Association are :
a) to promote the study of all scientific problems of geodesy and encourage geodetic research;
b) to promote and coordinate international cooperation in this field, and promote geodetic activities in developing countries;
c) to provide, on an international basis, for discussion and publication of the results of the studies, researches and works indicated in paragraphs a) and b) above.
3. To achieve these objectives, the Association shall comprise a small number of Sections, each of which deals with a distinct part of geodesy.
Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups may be formed as provided in the By-Laws.
4. Every country adhering to the Union (Member Country) may be represented by Delegates to the Association.
a) Scientists may become Affiliates of the Association, either as Fellows or Associates, as provided in the By-Laws.
5. The General Assembly of the Association shall consist of the Delegates of the Member Countries duly accredited by the corresponding Adhering Bodies, as defined in the Statutes of the Union.
6. The Council of the Association shall consist of the Delegates, known as Council Delegates, designated for meetings of the Council and formally accredited by the Adhering Body of Member Countries on the basis of one Delegate for each Member Country. Each Council member shall be an Associate or a Fellow of the Association.
No member of the Bureau of the Association shall serve as a Council Delegate of a country. The President of the Association shall preside over the Council meetings, without vote, except in the case of a tie as provided in article 16 hereafter.
7. Responsibility for the direction of the Association affairs shall be vested in the Council of the Association. Decisions of the Council shall be reported to the General Assembly. In the case that the majority of those present at a General Assembly meeting disagrees with the decisions of the Council, the Council shall reconsider the question, and make a decision, which shall be final.
8. Between meetings of the Council, the direction of the affairs of the Association shall be vested in the Bureau and the Executive Committee, the respective composition and responsabilities of which are defined hereafter.
9. The Bureau of the Association shall consist of the President, the First Vice-President and the Secretary General, all of whom shall be elected by the Council. The duties of the Bureau shall be to administer the affairs of the Association in accordance with these Statutes and By-Laws and with the decisions of the Council and the Executive Committee.
10. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Bureau, the immediate past President and the Second Vice-President of the Association, and the Presidents of the Sections.
The Honorary Presidents and the Honorary General Secretaries of the Association, the Presidents of Commissions, the Secretaries of the Sections, the Assistant Secretaries of the Association and the Chief Editor of the Bulletin Geodesique may attend any meeting of the Executive Committee of the Association, with voice but without vote.
The duties of the Executive Committee shall be to further the scientific objectives of the Sections and other scientific bodies of the Association through effective coordination and through the formulation of general policies to guide the scientific work of the Association.
The members of the Executive Committee shall attend meetings of the Council, with voice but without vote.
11. A Council Delegate may represent only one Member Country.
A Member Country which is not represented at a Council meeting may vote by correspondence on any specific question, provided that matter has been clearly defined on the final agenda distributed in advance to the Member Countries and that the discussion thereon has not produced any significant new considerations or changed its substance, and provided that the said vote has been received by the President prior to the voting.
12. In order that the deliberations of the Council shall be valid, the number of the Council Delegates present must be at least half of the Member Countries represented at the General Assembly of the Union.
13. On questions not involving matters of finance, the voting in Council shall be by Member Countries, each Member Country having one vote, provided that its Union subscriptions shall have been paid up to the end of the calendar year preceding the voting.
14. On questions involving finance, the voting in Council shall be by Member Countries, with the same provision that a voting country shall paid its Union subscriptions up to the end of the calendar year preceding the voting in Council. The number of votes allotted to each Member Country shall then be equal to the number of its category of membership as defined by the Union.
15. Before a vote in a Council meeting, the President shall decide whether or not the matter under consideration is financial in character and whether the procedure of voting by correspondence applies.
16. Decisions of the Council shall be taken by a simple majority, except as otherwise specified in these Statutes. If a tie should occur in a Council vote, the President shall cast the decisive vote. Simple and two-thirds majorities are determined by the proportion of affirmative votes to the sum of all votes (affirmative, negative and abstention). Bank and invalid ballots and votes not cast by delegates present are counted as abstentions.
17. Proposals for a change of any article of the Statutes of the Association must reach the Secretary General at least six months before the announced date of the Council meeting at which it is to be considered. The Secretary General shall notify all Member Countries of any proposed change at least four months before the announced date of the Council meeting.
18. The Statutes of the Association may not be modified except by the approval of a two-thirds majority of votes cast at a Council meeting.
These Statutes or any further modification of them shall come into force at the close of the Council meeting at which they are approved.
19. The Council shall have the power to adopt By-Laws within the framework of the Statutes of the Association.
These By-Laws may not be modified except by a simple majority of votes cast at a Council meeting.
These By-Laws or any further modification of them shall come into force at the close of the Council meeting at which they are approved.
20. In the event of the dissolution of the Association, its assets shall be ceded to the Union.
21. Conduct of meetings : Except as otherwise provided in the Statutes or By-Laws, business meetings shall be conducted according to Robert's Rules of Order.
22. These Statutes and By-Laws of the Association are set out in French and in English.
The validity of these rules shall not be vitiated by any error of a formal or accidental nature.
1. The scientific work of the International Association of Geodesy is allocated to Sections, the respective responsabilities of which are decided by the Council on recommendation of the Executive Committee. The structure of these Sections shall be reviewed every eight years (two periods) by a committee, called the Cassinis Committee, which shall make proposals to the Executive Committee. Because of the complex interrelations among various activities of the Association, interactions between the individual sections are implied.
There are at present five sections which are the following :
- Section I : Positioning.
. high precision horizontal and vertical networks;
. satellite and spatial positioning;
. inertial positioning;
. kinematic positioning;
. geodetic astronomy;
. marine positioning;
- Section II : Advanced Space Technology.
. development of space techniques for geodesy, such as: satellite radio-tracking techniques, radio-interferometric techniques, satellite and lunar laser ranging, satellite altimetry, satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gradiometry, geodetic measurements from space;
. orbital computations;
. direct results of such techniques;
. planetary and lunar geodetic techniques.
- Section III : Determination of the gravity field.
. absolute and relative terrestrial gravity measurements;
. non tidal gravity variations;
. determination of the external gravity field and the geoid from gravimetry, gradiometry, geodetic astronomy, space and inertial techniques;
. reduction and estimation of gravity field quantities.
- Section IV : General Theory and Methodology.
. General mathematical models for geodesy;
. statistical and numerical analysis;
. data processing and management;
. optimization methods;
. least squares methods;
. differential and integral theories of the gravity field;
. theory of estimation, approximation and representation of the gravity field.
- Section V : Geodynamics.
. reference systems;
. monitoring and study of time-dependent phenomena: polar motion, Earth rotation, Earth tides, recent crustal motions, variations of gravity, sea surface topography and mean sea level;
. geodetic aspects of international geodynamic projects;
. planetary and lunar dynamics;
. geophysical interpretation of gravity and related data.
1A- Each Section shall set up a Steering Committee consisting of the Section President, the Secretaries, the Presidents of Commissions and Special Commissions within the Section, and such other persons, who have participated in the work of the Section, as are coopted to the Committee, on the recommendation of the Section President.
2. Commissions may be formed for activities for which close international cooperation or organization is necessary, in particular for long term problems or activities relating to large regions.
Every Member Country of the Union is entitled to nominate one representative to each Commission, except those dealing with specific geographical areas; to the latter Commissions, only Member Countries of the Union in the geographical area in question are entitled to nominate one representative each.
A Commission is normally assigned to one Section.
Each Commission may be organized according to its own requirements in compliance with the Statutes and By-Laws of the Association and subject to approval by the Executive Committee, for instance through the formation of regional Sub-Commissions.
2A- Special Commissions may be formed to study scientific problems of a long term character which require close cooperation between specialists from different countries.
A Special Commission is normally assigned to a particular Section. Each Special Commission may be organized to its own requirements in compliance with the Statutes and By-Laws of the Association and subject to the approval by the Executive Committee, for instance through the formation of special Sub-Commissions to study defined aspects in its fields.
3. Special Study Groups may be formed to study specific scientific problems of limited scope which require close cooperation between specialists from different countries.
A Special Study Group is normally assigned to a particular Section.
4. The setting-up and dissolution of the Commissions, the Special Commissions and the Special Study Groups are decided by the Executive Committee which also specifies whether the Commission, the Special Commission or the Special Study Group is to be placed under the direct authority of the Association or of one of its Sections.
The list of Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups shall be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly.
5. The Association may also participate in joint scientific bodies with other Associations of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, or, representing this Union with other Unions. These bodies shall be administered according to specific rules proceeding from their relations with other agencies, but they shall report on their scientific work at each General Assembly of the Association.
The Executive Committee of the Association shall decide whether the relationship with any such common body is to be placed under the responsibility of the Association or of one specific Section. This responsibility includes the appointment of representatives to these common bodies as well as participating in the planning of their future activities.
6. Elections shall take place in the Council during each Ordinary General Assembly of the Association.
The President in office, after taking advice from members of the Executive Committee, shall appoint a Nominating Committee consisting of a Chairman and three other members. The Nominating Committee, after taking advice from the Adhering Bodies of the Member Countries and officers of the Association, shall propose a candidate for each position to be filled by election in the Council. Candidates shall be asked to signify their acceptance of nomination and to prepare a resume, maximum 150 words, outlining their position, research interests and activities relating to the Association. The delegates shall be informed of these nominations and the resumes, early in the General Assembly, and a notice posted allowing for submission, over a period of at least 48 hours, of further nominations. Such nominations shall be in writing, shall be supported by at least two members of the Council, and shall be submitted with resumes as described above to the Secretary General. Delegates shall be informed of these further nominations and resumes and of their supporters.
Elections shall be by secret ballot.
No person may hold more than one of the following offices at the same time : President of the Association, Vice-President, President of a Section and President of a Commission and a Special Commission.
7. The time interval between the closures of two successive Ordinary General Assemblies of the Association is called here a period.
8. The President of the Association is elected for one period. He may not be re-elected to this office, but the Council may appoint him as Honorary President.
9. The First and Second Vice-Presidents are elected for one period and may not be immediately re-elected to the same office.
11. The Secretary General is elected for one period initially. He may be re-elected for two additional single periods.
12. The same rules as in Art. 11 apply to Assistant Secretaries, other than the Assistant Secretary appointed under Art. 37A.
13. A member of the Bureau or of the Finance Committee of the Union may not occupy the post of President, of First Vice-President or of Secretary General of the Association.
14. Should the position of President become vacant in the interval between two Ordinary General Assemblies, his duties devolve to the First Vice-President until the closure of the next Ordinary General Assembly. In the same way the duties of the First Vice-President then devolve on the Second Vice-President.
Should the post of Secretary General become vacant, the President shall arrange without delay for the Executive Committee to elect a replacement by correspondence so as to ensure the continuity of the work of the Central Bureau. This election has effect until the closure of the next Ordinary General Assembly.
15. The Presidents of Sections are elected for one period and may not be immediately re-elected to the same office.
16. The Secretaries of Sections are elected for one period but may be re-elected for one further period.
The President of each Commission which is in a Section shall be a Secretary of that Section. The maximum number of Secretaries in a Section shall be two, except where the number of Commissions in a Section is greater than one, the number of Secretaries shall then equal the number of Commissions plus one.
17. Should the position of President of Section become vacant between two Ordinary General Assemblies, the Executive Committee shall appoint an interim member to take office until the closure of the next General Assembly.
Should other vacancies occur, the Executive Committee may make interim appointments.
18. The Presidents of Commissions and Special Commissions are elected by the Council of the Association for one period and may be immediately re-elected for one further period.
19. The Chairman of a Special Study Group is appointed by the Executive Committee for one period only.
20. A person may be President or Chairman at the same time of no more than one of the bodies referred to in Arts. 18 and 19.
III- General Assemblies.
21. The Association shall hold its own Ordinary General Assemblies in conjunction with the Ordinary General Assemblies of the Union, at the same time and in the same country.
22. Before any General Assembly, a detailed agenda is prepared by the Bureau of the Association. As far as the scientific work is concerned, the agenda is drawn up by the Executive Committee. This agenda is sent to the member countries and to all the officers of the Association so as to reach them at least two months prior to the Assembly. In principle, only matters on the agenda may be considered during the sessions, unless a decision to do otherwise is passed by a two-thirds majority in the Council or in the Executive Committee.
23. At each General Assembly, the President of the Association shall present a detailed report on the scientific work of the Association during his tenure. The Secretary General shall present a detailed report on the administrative work and on the finances of the Association for the same period. They both should submit proposals regarding work to be undertaken during the coming period, within the limits of expected resources.
These reports are handed to the delegates attending the General Assembly before the opening of the Assembly.
24. The scientific meetings generally take place Section by Section, but the study of some questions may require joint meetings of several Sections or Symposia under chairmen appointed by the Executive Committee.
Joint Symposia covering topics interesting two or more Associations within the Union may be arranged.
25. At each General Assembly, the work of each Section shall be reported by its President assisted by his Secretaries. Similarly, the work of each Commission, Special Commission or Special Study Group shall be reported by its President or Chairman.
26. The inclusion on the agenda of scientific papers for presentation at sessions of the General Assembly is decided by a committee consisting of one member of the Bureau and the Presidents of Sections.
27. Individual authors are responsible for the reproduction of their scientific papers. These papers are distributed to the delegates by the Central Bureau prior to the meeting where they are presented. They may be published in the Bulletin Géodésique subject to its editorial policy.
28. The Association's journal is the Bulletin Géodésique, hereinafter referred to as the journal. The journal is published at regular intervals, through an agreement between the Association and a publishing company, or by other arrangement approved by the Executive Committee. The terms of any agreement for publication of the journal shall be negotiated by the President and ratified by the Executive Committee.
There shall be one or more Editors-in-Chief for the journal, hereinafter referred to as the Editor. The Editor shall be advised and assisted by a Board of Editors, hereinafter referred to as the Board.
The Editor shall be responsible for the scientific content of the journal. All scientific manuscripts shall be subject to a refereeing process and the Editor shall make the final decision on whether a manuscript is accepted for publication. The Editor shall keep the Association informed of the activities and status of operations of the journal.
28A. At the time of each General Assembly, the Editor shall, in consultation and agreement with the President of the Association, recommend candidates for membership of the new Board, which is to hold office for the next period. During the Assembly, the current Board shall elect the members of the new Board from those recommended. After taking office, the new Board shall elect one, or more, Editors(s) for the next period. The nomination of the Editor(s) shall be approved by the Executive Committee.
The Editor and the members of the Board, shall each hold office for one period, but shall be eligible to be elected for one further period.
28B. After each General Assembly, a special issue of the Bulletin Géodésique shall be published under the name of "Geodesist's Handbook". This issue aims at providing detailed information on the Association, its structure and scientific activities, and other relevant technical and administrative information.
29. After each General Assembly, a collection of the reports presented by the Sections, Commissions and Special Study Groups shall be published in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie". This publication is supplied free of charge to the Officiers of the Association and to the Adhering Body of each Member Country.
30. The Association also issues special publications which contain information on recommended standards in geodesy.
31. At every General Assembly each Member Country of the Union is invited to supply an adequate number of copies of its National Report on geodetic work done since the previous General Assembly. These National Reports, as far as available, are distributed by the Central Bureau of the Association in the same manner as the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie".
32. The Council of the Association shall :
a) examine questions of general scientific policy or administration in the business of the Association and appoint such Committees as may, from time to time, be deemed necessary for this purpose;
b) elect the members of the Bureau and of the Executive Committee, the Assistant Secretaries of the Association, the Secretaries of Sections, the Presidents of Commissions and of Special Commissions;
c) receive reports from the Secretary General and consider for approval the decisions or actions taken by the Bureau and the Executive Committee since the last Council meeting;
d) appoint the three members of the ad hoc committee created for examining the finances of the Association, consider its recommendations and adopt the final budget;
e) consider proposals for changes in the Statutes and By-Law;
The Council is convened by the President of the Association. It shall normally meet during the Ordinary General Assemblies.
33. The Executive Committee of the Association shall :
a) initiate actions and issue guidelines, as required, to guide the Association towards the achievement of its scientific objectives;
b) fill vacancies occuring between General Assemblies, in accordance with the present Statutes and By-Laws;
c) set up and dissolve Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups;
d) appoint Chairmen of Special Study Groups, and approve the election of the Editor(s) in Chief of the Bulletin Géodésique;
e) appoint members of the Cassinis Committee;
f) make recommendations to the Council on matters of General policy of the Association and on the implementation of its objectives;
g) on the recommendation of the Bureau, appoint Fellows and Associates of the Association. Past officers of the Association, including those of the Commissions and sub-Commissions, shall be eligible for appointment as Fellows and shall be invited to become Fellows of the Association. Persons elected as officers of the Association or nominated as members of Commissions, Special Commissions of Special Study Group, shall automatically become Associates of the Association. Persons from Member Countries who apply, indicating previous participation in Association activities, or providing a recommendation from their national Adhering Body or a recommendation from an officier or a Fellow of the Association, shall be eligible to become Associates, and shall be recommended by the Bureau.
The Executive Committee is convened by the President of the Association, it shall meet at General Assemblies and its members shall attend the meetings of the Council, with voice but without vote. It shall also meet normally at least once betwen General Assemblies, one year ahead of the General Assembly, in order to prepare the scientific agenda and the time-table during the next General Assembly.
At a meeting of the Executive Committee, no member may be represented by any other person, except a President of a Section who may be represented by a Secretary of his Section. In order that the deliberations of the Executive Committee shall be valid, half at least of its members must be present or represented.
The agenda for each meeting of the Executive Committee shall be prepared by the Bureau and sent to the members at least three months prior to the meeting.
34. The Bureau of the Association shall :
a) draw up the agenda of the meetings of the Council and Executive Committee;
b) ensure the adequate administration of the Association. It shall normally meet before each meeting of the Executive Committee.
35. The President of the Association shall :
a) be the representative of the Association in its dealing with National or International Organizations or Institutions;
b) convene and preside over the General Assembly and over all meetings of the Council, Executive Committee and Bureau;
c) submit a report to the General Assembly on the scientific work of the Association during his tenure;
He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Union. In case of his absence, the First Vice-President shall act.
36. The Secretary General shall :
a) serve as secretary of the General Assembly, the Council, the Executive Committee and the Bureau: arrange for meetings of these bodies, prepare and distribute promptly the agenda and the minutes of all their meetings;
b) be the Director of the Central Bureau;
c) manage the affairs of the Association, attend to correspondence, preserve the records;
d) circulate all appropriate information related to the Association;
e) prepare the reports on the Association's activities, especially report to the General Assembly on the administration and the finance of the Association during the current period;
f) perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Bureau.
37. To assist the Secretary General in the performance of his duties to the Association, the Association establishes a permanent agency, the Central Bureau, including a variable number of employees paid out of Association funds.
The Secretary General is also assisted by a small number of Assistant-Secretaries, one of whom is located in the same office as the Secretary General. All these functions are unpaid and only expenses incurred in connection with them are repayable.
37A. An additional Assistant Secretary to be known as the Assembly Secretary may also be appointed by the Council on the recommendation of the Adhering Body of the country in which the next General Assembly takes place. If this procedure is not feasible then the Council may delegate the appointment to the Bureau.
In cooperation with the Central Bureau, this Assistant Secretary has responsibilities for liaison with the organizers working on the preparation of the General Assembly. This Assistant Secretary shall be appointed for one period only.
IV- Activities of Sections, Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups.
38. The President of a Section is responsible for the scientific development within the area of his Section and is the representative of his Section on the Executive Committee of the Association. Working closely with the Steering Committee he shall encourage, guide and coordinate the work of the Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups within his Section, and in particular keep the officers of his Section as well as the Bureau of the Association informed of the Section's activities, on an annual basis.
It is desirable the the President of a Section, or else one of the Secretaries of the Section, should attend each of the Symposia related to the section.
Before each General Assembly the President of a Section shall receive the reports of the Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups within his Section and, assisted by the Steering Committee, prepare a report on the activities of the Section to be presented at the General Assembly.
He shall receive suggestions for new Special Study Groups, and suggestions for continuation of existing Special Study Groups under Art. 43, and, after consulting his Section Steering Committee, shall coordinate them and transmit his recommendations to the Executive Committee.
Each Section Steering Committee shall meet at least once during each Ordinary General Assembly and on at least one other occasion during the period. At the General Assembly meeting, or on some other appropriate occasion, the Steering Committee shall review the activities of Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups over the past period, and for those which will be recommended for continuation, review their programmes for the forthcoming period.
The Section Secretaries assist the Section President in his duties.
39.The President of a Commission is responsible for initiating and directing its work and selecting its members, apart from those representatives of Member Countries appointed under Art. 2.
The President of each Commission shall issue a brief description of the work to be performed and a list of members, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly.
To assist communication and cooperation within each Commission, members should be informed, on an annual basis, of results achieved and of outstanding problems.
39A. The President of a Special Commission is responsible for initiating and directing its work and selecting its members. Special Commission membership should be balanced so as to reflect international cooperation in the subject and shall be limited to a member not exceeding 30.
The President of each Special Commission shall issue a brief description of the work to be performed and a list of members, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly.
To assist communication and cooperation within each Special Commission, members should be kept informed, on an annual basis, of results achieved and of outstanding problems.
40. The Chairman of a Special Study Group is responsible for initiating and directing its work and appointing its members. Special Study Group membership should be balanced so as to reflect international cooperation in its subject and shall be limited to a number exceeding 20.
The Chairman of each Special Study Group shall issue a brief description of the work to be performed and a list of members, to be published in the Geodesist's Handbook after each General Assembly.
To assist communication and cooperation within each Special Study Group, members should be kept informed, on an annual basis, of results achieved and of outstanding problems
41. The President of the Association, the Central Bureau and the President of the relevant Section should receive copies of all official correspondence and of notices to members of Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups.
42. The reports of each Commission, Special Commission and Special Study Group should reach the President of each relevant Section at least three months before each General Assembly. These reports and the reports of the Sections are published in the "Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie".
43. The period of work of each Special Study Group normally ends at an Ordinary General Assembly. In the exceptional case that a continuation of the work is deemed necessary, the Special Study Group Chairman shall submit in writing a well-grounded proposal, including a suggestion for his successor, to his Section President, at least three months before the General Assembly. The Section President shall then make a recommendation to the Executive Committee.
44. Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups not assigned to one Section shall be under the responsibility of the President of the Association.
45. Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups are free to hold workings of their members. If they wish to arrange scientific Symposia, these are subject to the usual approval procedure for Symposia of the Association. Symposia should be arranged only if the topic transcends the frame of one Commisson, one Special Commission or one Special Study Group.
46. The Association may organize scientific Symposia to study particular questions of wide interest.
The Executive Committee is responsible for a balanced selection of Symposia, to ensure a representative coverage of subjects and a good geographical distribution and to avoid duplication, overlap and undue frequency.
Symposia sponsored by the Association shall be freely open to all scientists, in accordance with ICSU regulations.
47. Normally applications for Symposia to be held in the period between two Ordinary General Assemblies should be submitted by the Host Organization to the Secretary General before the General Assembly preceding that period. During this General Assembly other applications may be submitted to the Secretary General at least two days before the last meeting of the Council.
The Council, on recommendation of the Executive Committee, shall decide whether the Symposium in question will be sponsored by the Association.
In exceptional cases, the Executive Committee may approve late applications. Such applications must be submitted at least 18 months before the proposed date for the Symposium.
48. The Symposium Organizer must send an official announcement of the Symposium to the Bulletin Géodésique at least one year in advance or immediately after the approval by the Association; the announed date of the Symposium must not be changed later.
49. Within three months after, the Symposium Organizer shall provide a report to be published in the Bulletin Géodésique. This report should indicate whether, where, and when the Proceedings will be published. A Copy of the Symposium Proceedings, or else one copy of each paper presented at the Symposium, shall be sent to the Central Bureau of the Association.
50. Sponsorship by the Association means only official recognition and does not imply financial support.
VIII- International Sientific Cooperation.
51. The Association may undertake directly, supervise or cooperate in scientific work of an international or interdisciplinary character. As a matter of principle, the Association should be represented at Congresses, International Meetings, General Assemblies, etc... of scientific organizations whose activities are connected with its own. The President of the Association or its designate will be the representative of the Association at these meetings.
Travelling and accommodation expenses of the Delegate of the Association may be charged, in whole or in part, to the Association. The Delegate shall prepare a report of the meeting, including the discussions relating to geodesy, which may be published, in whole or in part, in the Bulletin Géodésique.
The Association may also represent the Union in inter-Union Commissions or special joint Committees dealing with topics that are related to its own studies.
Elections of Association or Union geodetic representatives to those permanent bodies shall be made by the Executive Committee. These representatives shall be elected for one period and may be re-elected for one further period.
52. The funds of the Association derive from :
a) the contributions of the member countries of the Union of which a proportion, determined by the Council of the Union on recommendation of its Finance Committee, is paid to the Association by the Treasurer of the Union;
b) the sale of publications;
c) any other source (including grants, donations, interest, funds remaining after a symposium, etc...).
53. The Secretary General is responsible to the Bureau of the Association and to the Council for managing the funds in accordance with the Statutes and By-Laws, with the decisions of the Council and with the recommendations of the Finance Committee of the Union.
The Secretary General alone shall responsible for control of the financial operations of the Association; however for each bank account of the Association, there shall be one Assistant Secretary who shall also have access to the account.
54. At each Ordinary General Assembly of the Association the budget proposal for the ensuing period shall be presented by the Secretary General and submitted for approval to the Council.
The budget as approved by the Council shall be implemented by the Secretary General.
During the next Ordinary General Assembly, the Council shall examine all expenditures to ensure that they were in accordance with the proposals previously approved. The Council shall appoint an ad hoc committee for carrying out this examination in detail.
In addition, these accounts shall be audited by a qualified accountant and shall then be reported to the Treasurer of the Union, as prescribed in Art. 20 of By-Laws of the Union.