XXIth General Assembly of the International Association of Geodesy
(Boulder, Colorado, USA, July 3-14, 1995)
REPORT on the MEETINGS
of the - Executive Committee
- General Assembly
During this General Assembly,
. The Executive Committee met on July 3 (morning and evening), July 11
. The Council met on July 3, July 5 and
The participants to the Executive Committee Meetings were the President (W. Torge), the First Vice-President (K.-P. Schwarz), the Second Vice-President (J.-Y. Chen), the immediate past President (I.I. Mueller), the Secretary General (C. Boucher) and Assistant Secretary (P. Willis) of the Association, the Presidents of the Sections (M. Prilepin, Ch. Reigber, H.-G. Wenzel, F. Sansò, J. Dickey) and the Secretaries of the Sections (F.K. Brunner, K. Poder, R. Rummel, B. Schutz, R. Forsberg, I. Marson, H. Sünkel, P. Holota, P.J.G. Teunissen, M. Feissel, H. Hsu, T. Tanaka), the Editors-in-Chief of the Bulletin Géodésique (C.C. Tscherning, P. Vanicek) and H. Moritz as Honorary President.
At the Executive Meeting, held on July 11, the newly elected members of the future Executive Committee were invited (with voice but without vote).
At the meetings of the Council, 36 member countries were represented :
- Algeria (S. Kahlouche)
- Australia (R. Coleman)
- Austria (E. Erker)
- Belgium (U. Van Twembeke/P. Pâquet)
- Brazil (D. Blitzkow)
- Canada (R.B. Langley)
- China (Jianguo Hu)
- Czech Republic (P. Holota)
- Denmark (F. Madsen)
- Egypt (A. Tealeb)
- Finland (H. Kakkuri)
- France (M. Feissel)
- Germany (F.W. Grafarend)
- Hungary (J. Adam)
- India (V.K. Gaur)
- Indonesia (R. Matindas)
- Isarael (G. Steinberg)
- Italy (C. Morelli)
- Japan (J. Segawa)
- Korea (C.G. Baag)
- Luxembourg (G. Breger)
- Netherlands (P.J.G. Teunissen)
- New Zealand (D. Grant)
- Norway ( B.G. Harsson)
- Nigeria (O. Cocker)
- Poland (L.W. Baran)
- Portugal (J.A. Torres)
- Russia (M.T. Prilepin)
- South Africa (R.T. Wonnacott)
- Sweden (L. Sjöberg)
- Switzerland (E. Gubler)
- Taiwan (Cun-Sung Chen)
- Thailand (A. Phansanong)
- United-Kingdom (V. Ashkenazi/G. Blewitt)
- United States of America (B.E Schutz/ J. Dickey)
- Zimbabwe (C. Masterton)
During these meetings, topics concerning the activities and administrative affairs of the International Association of Geodesy were treated. Decisions or conclusions were drawn as follows.
1 - Finances - Approval of the financial report of the Secretary General
The financial report for the period 1991-1994 was presented by the Secretary General during the opening session of the General Assembly. An Audit Committee was nominated by the Council for carrying out detailed examination of the accounts, and the following report was unanimously adopted by the Council:
"Report of the Audit Committee of the Council of the IAG."
At the first session on Monday, July 3, 1995, the Council elected the following Committee to audit the accounts of the Association from 1991 to 1994:
C.E. Calvert (Chairman)
U. Van Twembeke
The Audit committee met four times.
1.1. The Audit Committee performed the following:
1.1.1 Examined all receipts and bank statements for the period of account.
1.1.2 Examined all entries in daily ledgers, monthly and annual totals.
1.1.3 Checked balances appearing in the annual and quadrennial reports of the IAG.
1.1.4 Made enquiries which were clarified by Dr. Pascal Willis.
1.2. The Audit Committee makes the following comments on the IAG account:
1.2.1 The accounts are well presented and expenditure supported by receipts.
1.2.2 Multi currency transfers have been clearly documented.
1.2.3 During the period 1991-1994 the value of investments and reserves has risen by 5.777,65 US $ to 21.650,12 US $. This has been largely due to wise investment and careful spending.
1.2.4 The IUGG allocation for the next four years should remain the same as previously.
1.2.5 At the end of the period 1991-1994 the disposable balance of IAG is 21.650,12 US $.
1.2.6 The IAG should gratefully acknowledge the assistance by Institute Géographique National of France by providing accommodation and personnel for the IAG Bureau.
1.3. Audit Committee makes the following comments on the IAG Fund.
1.3.1 The ledgers and investment books of the fund were examined and checked.
1.3.2 The IAG Fund accounts were split from the IUGG (IAG) accounts during 1993. The creation of separate ledgers and accounts have enabled better financial regulation.
1.3.3 There should be a duplicate receipt to acknowledge receipt of funds into the account and dispersal from the account.
1.3.4 The value of the IAG Fund is currently 16.043,35 US$ .
The Audit Committee recommends the Council of the IAG to accept the financial report for the period 1991-1994 as presented in the appendix B of the report of the Secretary General.
2 - Elections
The elections were prepared by the Nominating Committee (I.I. Mueller - Chairman, J.Y. Chen, P.J.G. Teunissen, H.G. Wenzel) which presented its list of candidates at the first meeting of the Council on Monday July 3. The elections took place in the Council on Wednesday July 5 ; they gave the following results :
President : K.-P. Schwarz (Canada)
First Vice President : F. Sansò (Italy)
Secretary General : C.C. Tscherning (Denmark)
Second Vice President : J.O. Dickey (USA)
(attending any meeting of the Bureau on invitation of the President)
Section I : Positioning
President : F. Brunner (Austria)
Secretaries : Y. Bock (USA)
(Commission X) : C. Boucher (France)
Section II : Advanced Space Technology
President : R. Rummel (Germany)
Secretaries : P. Willis (France)
(Commission VIII) : G. Beutler (Switzerland)
Section III : Determination of the Gravity Field
President : R. Forsberg (Denmark)
Secretaries : M. Sideris (Canada)
(Commission III) : I. Marson (Italy)
(Commission XII) : H. Sünkel (Austria)
Section IV : General Theory and Methodology
President : P. Holota (Czech Rep.)
Secretaries : B. Heck (Germany)
C. Jekeli (USA)
Section V : Geodynamics
President : M. Feissel (France)
Secretaries : C. Wilson (USA)
(Commission V) : H.-G. Wenzel (Germany)
(Commission VII) : T. Tanaka (Japan)
Journal of Geodesy
Editor-in-Chief P.J.G. Teunissen
Assistant Secretary of the Association :
O.B. Andersen (Denmark)
Honorary President :
G. Bomford (U.K.)
Y. Boulanger (Russia)
T.J. Kukkamäki (Finland)
H. Moritz (Austria)
P.V. Angus-Leppan (Australia)
I.I. Mueller (USA)
W. Torge (Germany)
Honorary Secretaries General :
J.J. Levallois (France)
M. Louis (France)
3 - Review of Commissions, Special Commissions and Special Study Groups
No new commission were created, but two out-of-section commissions were dissolved: Commission IX (Education) and Commission XI (Geodesy in Africa):
Commission IX (Education): The topic of this Commission was found as very important. The work performed, under the direction of R. Langley and in collaboration with sister associations, within the frame of IUSM (International Union of Surveying and Mapping), was acknowledged with thanks. As a certain goal has been reached by the work of the Commission, it was decided to dissolve it, and to follow up questions on education by a Coordinator for Educationnal Initiatives, R. Langley was elected as Coordinator, directly reporting to the IAG Bureau.
Commission XI (Geodesy in Africa): The activity of this commission was not as strong as it should have been, taking into account the importance of the subject. This was especially due to their too broad definition of the Commission, which should cover the whole field of Geodesy in a continent (being the only structure of that typoe within IAG). As dedicated Sub-Commission (e.g. for networks, geoid,...) successfully work with the common structure for other regions of the world, the Commission was dissolved, and it was strongly recommended that the Commissions take care, within their regional Sub-Commissions, on geodetic problems in Africa.
The other Commissions were continued, i.e.
Commission III (International Gravity Commission): I. Marson (Italy)
Commission V (Earth Tides): H.-G. Wenzel (Germany)
Commission VII (Recent Crustal Movement): T. Tanaka (Japan)
Commission VIII (International Coordination of Space Techniques for Geodesy and Geodynamics -CSTG): G. Beutler (Switzerland)
Commission X (Global and Regional Geodetic Networks): C. Boucher (France)
Commission XII (International Geoid Commission): H. Sünkel (Austria)
3.2 Special Commissions
According to the IAG by-laws, Special Commissions may be formed to study scientific problems of a long term character which require close cooperation between specialists from different countries.
Two Special Commissions were dissolved: SC 2 (History of Geodesy) and SC 5 (Marine Positioning):
SC 2 (History of Geodesy): The work accomplished by this Special Commission, chaired by J. Weightman, was acknowledged with thanks by the Executive Committee and the need to continue this activity in the future was stressed. The Sub-Commission structure was found to be inappropriate and the structure of a Committee directly reporting to the Central Bureau was proposed and accepted by the Council.
SC 5 (Marine Positioning): This Special Commission had to cover an extremely large area of research and application, which is of fundamental importance for Geodesy. The work of the Special Commission, chaired by M. Kumar, was acknowledged with thanks. In order to be evenmore effective, and to avoid overlaps with the relevant work done within the Sections structure, it was decided to dissolved the Special Commission and to follow-up the issues of marine geodesy within the Sections structures, mainly trhough Special Study Groups.
The four remaining Special Commissions were maintained, i.e.:
SC 1 (Mathematical and Physical Foundations of Geodesy): E.W. Grafarend (Germany)
SC 3 (Fundamental Constants): E. Groten (Germany)
SC 4 (Applications of Geodesy to Engineering): H. Kahmen (Austria)
SC 6 (Wegener Project): S. Zerbini (Italy)
Two new Special Commissions were created:
SC 7 (Gravity Field Determination by Satellite Gravity Gradiometry): K.-H. Ilk. (Germany)
(in Section II)
SC 8 (Sea Level and Ice Sheet Variations): W.E. Carter (USA)
(in Section V)
3.3 Special Study Groups
As Special Study Groups are created to study specific scientific problems of limited scope, most of them are terminated after a four year period at the General Assembly. After proposal from the Sections and discussion within the Executive Committee, the following decisions were made and agreed upon by the Council:
SSG 1.105 : Kinematic Global Positioning System
SSG 1.125 : Positioning with Inertial Systems
SSG 1.126 : Permanent GPS Arrays
SSG 1.127 : Error Propagation in GPS Networks
SSG 1.128 : Wet Propagation Delay
SSG 1.153 : Precise Marine Positioning (Surface and Seafloor)
D. Egge (Germany)
SSG 1.154 : Quality Issues in Real Time GPS Positioning
C. Rizos (Australia)
SSG 1.155 : Active GPS Networks
H. Tsuji (Japan)
SSG 1.156 : Advanced GPS Analysis for Precise Positioning
G. Blewitt (U.K.)
SSG 1.157 : Ambiguity Resolution and Validation
P.J. de Jonge (The Netherlands)
SSG 1.158 : Antenna and Site Effects
J. Johansson (Sweden)
SSG 1.159 : Use of GPS Positioning for Atmospheric Monitoring
M. Bevis (USA)
SSG 2.107 : Gravity-Field Determination by Satellite Gravity-Gradiometry
SSG 2.109 : Applications of Space VLBI in the Field of Astrometry and Geodynamics
SSG 2.130 : Non-Gravitational Force Modelling Effects on Satellite Orbits
SSG 2.131 : Spaceborne GPS/GLONASS
SSG 2.132 : Time-Varying Gravitational Effects on Satellite Orbits
SSG 2.151 : Altimetry: Optimal Processing for Geodesy, Geophysics and Oceanography
SSG 2.160 : Spaceborne Interferometric SAR Technology
R. Klees (The Netherlands)
SSG 2.161: Spaceborne Atmospheric Sounding
C. Rocken (USA)
SSG 2.162 : Precise Orbits using Multiple Space Techniques
A. Marshall (USA)
SSG 3.133 : Techniques of Precise Gravimetry
SSG 3.134 : Airborne Gravimetry
SSG 3.135 : Optimization of Spectral Gravity Field Modelling Methods
SSG 3.136 : High Resolution Geoid Modelling and Evaluation
SSG 3.137 : Combined Use of Gravimetry and Stress-Strain Measurements Techniques
SSG 3.163 : Assesment and Refinement of Global Digital Terrain Models
D. Arabelos (Greece)
SSG 3.164 : Airborne Gravimetry Instrumentation and Methos
M. Wei (Canada)
SSG 3.165 : Global Gravity Field Determination and Evaluation
N. Pavlis (USA)
SSG 3.166 : Local Gravity Field Modelling and Interpretation
T. Basic (Croatia)
SSG 3.167 : Regional Land and Marine Geoid Modelling
H. van Gysen (South Africa)
SSG 4.138 : Modelling and Quality Control for Precise Integrated Navigation
SSG 4.139 : The role of Terrain in Gravity Field Modelling
SSG 4.140 : Tomography of the Atmosphere by Geodetic Measurements
SSG 4.141 : Integrated Inverse Gravity Modelling
SSG 4.142 : Applications of the Boundary Value Problem Techniques to Space and Airborne Graviy Field
SSG 4.168 : Inversion of Satellite Altimetric Data
P. Knudsen (Denmark)
SSG 4.169 : Wavelets in Geodesy
B. Benciolini (Italy)
SSG 4.170 : Integrated Inverse Gravity Modelling
L. Ballani (Germany)
SSG 4.171 : Dynamic Isostasy
L.E. Sjöberg (Sweden)
SSG 5.143 : Rapid Earth Orientation Variations
SSG 5.144 : Dynamic Effects in Earth Rotation Theory
SSG 5.145 : Long-Term Variations in Earth Rotation
SSG 5.146 : Processing of Optical Polar Motion Data in View of Plumb Line Variations
SSG 5.147 : Studies of the Baltic Sea
SSG 5.148 : Global Geodynamic Variations
SSG 5.149 : Studies on Vertical Datums
SSG 5.150 : Density Distribution within the Lithosphere
SSG 5.152 : Geodetic Research Toward the Reduction of Natural Hazards
SSG 5.172 : Understanding Natural Hazards: The Geodetic Contribution
S. Okubo (Japan)
SSG 5.173 : Interaction of the Atmosphere and Oceans with the Earth's Rotational Dynamics
C. Wilson (USA)
SSG 5.174 : Geophysical Interpretation of Temporal Variations of the Geopential
A. Cazenave (France)
SSG 5.175 : Interannual Variations of Vertical and Their Interpretation
Z.X. Li (China)
3.4 International Bureaus, Services and Centers
The following bodies will continue their work, and are affiliated to FAGS :
. Bureau Gravimétrique International (B.G.I)
Director : G. Balmino (France)
. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (B.I.P.M)
Time Section: Director : C. Thomas (France)
. International Centre of Earth Tides (I.C.E.T.)
Director : B. Ducarme (Belgium)
. International Earth Rotation Service (I.E.R.S.)
Chairman of the Directing Board :
C. Reigber (Germany)
Director of the Central Bureau :
M. Feissel (France)
. Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (P.S.M.S.L.)
Director : P.L. Woodworth (U.K.)
The following body will continue its work, but is not affiliated to FAGS:
The International Geoid Service -IGeS-
Chairman of the Directing Board
F. Sansò (Italy)
After a long discussion and a vote, it was decided that the International Center for Recent Crustal Movement (ICRCM) would continue as an IAG body for only one year after Boulder (August 1995-July 1996). After this period, ICRCM will not be considered anymore as an IAG body. The activities of ICRCM were acknowledged with thanks, and it was decided to include them in a larger research structure of IAG which has still to be defined. An Ad Hoc Planning Group, chaired by M. Bevis, was created to explore the establishment of a Crustal Deformation Bureau and the Modernization of the Commission on Recent Crustal Movement.
A new Service, affiliated to FAGS, was created in Section II:
International GPS Service -IGS-
Chairman of the Directing Board:
G. Beutler (Switzerland)
Director of the Central Bureau :
R. Neilan (USA)
3.5 Committees reporting to the IAG Bureau
Several Committees, directly reporting to the Central Bureau, were established:
Chairman : W. Torge (Germany)
Committee on Geodetic Aspects of the Law of the Sea -GALOS-
Chairman : P. Vanicek (Canada)
Committee for Developping Countries
Chairman : (to be defined by the Bureau)
Committee on the History of Geodesy
Chairman : J. Weightman (U.K.)
Coordinator for Educational Initiatives : R. Langley (Canada)
Ad Hoc Planning Group on Crustal Deformation
M. Bevis (USA)
4 - IAG Representatives to other organizations
TO EXTERNAL BODIES
BGI Directing Board
I Marson (Italy)
COSPAR/IAU/IAG Workimg Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites
M. Bursa (Czech Republic)
IAPSO Commission on Mean Sea Level and Tides
C. Boucher (France)
IAU Working Group on Astronomical Standards (WGAS)
E. Groten (Germany)
IAU/IUGG Working Group on Non Rigid Earth Rotation
T. Herring (USA)
ICET Directing Board
H.-G. Wenzel (Germany)
(President Earth Tide Commission)
P. Wilson (Germany)
ICSU Panel on World Data Centers
(to be appointed following proposal by G. Balmino)
IERS Directing Board
C. Reigber (Germany)
IGS Governing Board
I.I Mueller (USA)
G. Beutler (USA)
(appointed by section II)
ISO TC 211
C. Boucher (France)
IUGG Inter-Association Committee for Mathematical Geophysics
M. Vermeer (Finland)
IUSM Executive Board:
I.I. Mueller (USA)
K.-P. Schwarz (Canada)
PAIGH (Panamerican Institute for Geography and History):
W. Torge (Germany)
H. Drewes (Germany)
WMO/IUGG Working Group on data exchange for forecast of natural disasters
Y. Bock (USA)
5 - Awards
5.1 The Bomford Prize 1995 was awarded to Thomas Herring, Professor at the Massachussets Institute of Technology, USA, for his outstanding contribution to geodesy and particularly to his long-term contribution in space geodesy. The Prize was handed over to him by W. Torge, President of the IAG, during the IAG General Assembly opening ceremony, and Prof. T. Herring gave a short lecture summarizing his research work during the opening ceremony (published in the Geodesist's Handbook.
5.2 The Levallois Medal was awarded to Prof. W. Baarda, Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands) in recognition of distinguished service to the Association and to the science of geodesy in general. The Levallois Medal will be given to Prof. W. Baarda by the IAG President W. Torge during a ceremony in Delft on November 17, 1995.
5.3 The 1995 IAG Best Paper was awarded to J.P. Barriot (France) for his paper entitled "Line of Sight Operators in Planetary Geodesy" published in Manuscripta Geodaetica, vol 19, 5, pp. 269-283.
6 - Resolutions
6.1 - Resolutions presented by the International Association of Geodesy and endorsed by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
Three resolutions proposed by I.A.G. were accepted by I.U.G.G. :
- Resolution IUGG n°1 to recommend national agencies and institutions to contribute to the operations of IERS by providing observations and products.
- Resolution IUGG n°2 to strongly recommend the implementation of a dedicated satellite gravity mission.
- Resolution IUGG n°3 to request the IAU to reconsider its recent resolution (1994, C4) regarding the use of Julian Days Scale.
6.2 - I.A.G. Resolutions
- Resolution IAG n°1 to recommend the fixing of tide gauges in a geodetic reference frame at the sub-centimeter accuracy in vertical.
- Resolution IAG n°2 to continue detailled comparaison of mean sea level slopes with those obtained from adjusted heights in vertical geodetic networks.
- Resolution IAG n°3 for the establishment of a group identified as a six-year observation period for the global gravity monitoring network.
- Resolution IAG n°4 for the establishement of an Asian-Pacific space geodynamic project.
- Resolution IAG n°5 to encourage geodynamics project in Africa supported by local institutions and international cooperating agencies.
- Resolution IAG n°6 to thank the french colleagues of the IAG Central Bureau from 1919 to 1995.
- Resolution IAG n°7 to thank the organizing Committee for the preparation of the General Assembly.
7 - Publications
An agreement between Springer-Verlag and the IAG has been signed, with the content that the two journals Bulletin Géodésique and manuscripta geodaetica will be merged in one journal, called "Journal of Geodesy", starting in Jan 1, 1996. The new Editor-in-Chief and the board of editors were appointed by the IAG Executive Committee: P.J.G. Teunissen (Editor-in-Chief), F.H. Schroder (Assistant-Editor-in-Chief), C.C. Tscherning (IAG information Editor), D. Arabelos, F. Barlier, R. Barzaghi, Y. Bock, E. Cannon, M. Feissel, H. van Gysen, P. Holota, H.T. Hsu, C. Jekeli, D.G. Milbert, S. Okubo, B. Schaffrin, G. Seeber, A. Stolz, M. Vermeer, H.-G. Wenzel, P. Willis
Most of the reports were distributed in Boulder. It should be possible to print and distribute the Travaux within a short timetable (fall 1995).
7.3 The Geodesist's Handbook
The Geodesist's Handbook will be published in 1996, as a specific issue of the new Journal of Geodesy. P. Willis has been appointed as Editor of the Handbook.
8 - Cassinis Committee
Following the IAG By-Laws, a Cassinis Committe was formed, chaired by W. Torge, to propose new ideas and changes for the IAG structure. An open forum was initiated during the Boulder General Assembly to raise new proposal from the members of the IAG scientific community. The Cassinis Committee is formed by the following people: W. Torge (Chairman), J.Y. Chen, I.I. Mueller, F. Sansò, J. Dickey, C.C. Tcsherning, H. Sünkel.
9 - IAG Fund
The IAG Fund initiative proved to be a great success during the last period. More than a hundred people already made a contribution to this fund. This fund has been used:
- to help young scientists to assist to large international symoposium (4 grants were given for Boulder),
- to forster publication from young scientists in the IAG journals (3 IAG Best Paper Awards were given),
- to support organization of IAG Workshop in developping countries.
10 - IAG New Fellows
The IAG Executive Committee appointed the following Fellows of the International Association of Geodesy:
Benjamin Fong Chao
Gunnar K. Elgered
Richard B. Langley
Ruth E. Neilan
John C. Ries
Jean M. Rüeger
Ernst J.O. Schrama
Jack A. Weightman
N.B.: It must be noted that additionnal new IAG Fellows can also be appointed at the next IAG Executivce Committee meeting.
11 - Support of workshops in developing countries
It is important that workshops, summer schools could be organized regularly in developping countries. For this purpose, possible financial support is already available from the IAG Fund initiative. During the past period, several workshops proved to be effective and were efficiently organized on a local basis.
12 - IAG Service Policy
IAG is now providing more and more products and services to the IAG community and also to outside users. A discussion was initiated to define general principles that IAG bodies should apply, as general policy, for their data distribution. In particular, the question of revenues for IAG products and services was raised. This topic will be rediscussed and finalized during the next IAG Executive Committee meeting.
13 - Future Scientific Meetings
13.1 IAG Scientific Assembly 1997
The IAG Scientific Assembly will be organized in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in September 1997.
13.2 IAG Sponsored meetings
The following meetings were accepted for IAG sponsorship by the IAG Executive Committee:
ISPRS Workshop on Integration sensor orientation: theory, algorithms, and systems,
Barcelona, Spain, September 4-8, 1995
3rd Conference on
Optical 3-D Measurement Techniques
Vienna, Austria, October 2-4, 1995
FISOLS 95 - 5th International Symposium
on land Subsidence
The Hague, The Netherlands, October 16-22, 1995
International Summer School of Theoretical Geodesy
Como, Italy, May 26-June 7, 1996
Second International Conference GALOS
Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, July 1-4, 1996
XII International Course in Engineering Geodesy
Graz, Austria, Sept. 7-16, 1996
5th International Winter Seminar on Geodynamics Gravity in Space and Time
Sopron, Hyngary, 1996
Regional Symposium on Deformations and Crustal movements investigations using Geodetic techniques
Szekesfehervar, Hungary, Autumn 1996
Joint Symposium of IGC and IGeC
Tokyo, Japan, Nov., 1996
Tropical School of Geodesy - ITB
Bandung, Indonesia, Oct-Nov. 1996
International Symposium on Kinematic Systems in Geodesy, Geomatics and Navigation KIS 97
Banff, Canada, June 3-6, 1997
IAG Participation in the
Joint Assemblies of IAMAS and IAPSO
Melbourne, Australia, June, 1997
13th International Symposium on Earth Tides
Brussels, Belgium, Aug. 1997
4th International Seminar on GPS in Central Europe
Penc, Hungary, 1997
6th International Winter Seminar on Geodynamics on Long periodic variations in Earth rotation
Sopron, Hungary, 1998
9th International Symposium on Recent Crustal Movements
Cairo, Egypt, Dec. 1998
5th International Seminar on GPS in Central Europe
Penc, Hungary, 1999
13.3 Next IUGG General Assembly
The next IUGG General Assembly will be held in Birmingham (U.K.) in summer 1999.
13.4 Next Meeting of the IAG Executive Committee
The next meeting of the IAG Executive Committe will be held in Copenhagen in fall 1995.