Ole Baltazar Andersen
IAG Central Bureau, Department of Geophysics, Juliane Mariesvej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø. Denmark. Fax: +45 3582 2565, E-mail: email@example.com, URL:http://www.gfy.ku.dk/~iag/
The IAG Newsletter is under the editorial responsibility of the IAG Central Bureau chaired by the IAG General Secretary. In each issue of Journal of Geodesy the newsletter includes the following topics:
|Reports of IAG symposia.|
|Reports by National Correspondents.|
|Reports from IAG Special Study Groups.|
It is the intent of the IAG to extend the services provided by its Central Bureau.
An up-to-date information medium is one of the key elements. The IAG Newsletter, included as appendix of the Journal of Geodesy, should play this role, and therefore be considered as an open forum.
Contributors are welcomed to send any information or document (preferably in electronic form) which may be of interest for this purpose. This should complement the informations already send by the IAG officials or the IAG symposia organizers (reports and announcements).
Brigadier Guy Bomford, OBE, MA, DsC (1899-1996)..
Guy Bomford, one of the best known and respected figures on the international geodetic scene, died peacefully on February 10, after a very varied life. The first half of his life was in the army, with many adventures and dangers to be overcome. The second half was, in great contrast, spent in 'the cloistered groves of academe' at the University of Oxford, although by no means was he content to sit back and relax and it was here that he consolidated and widened his great reputation in international geodetic circles.
Guy was born on 28 June, 1899. the son of Surgeon General Sir Gerald Bomford of the Indian Medical Service. Guy's father encouraged his scientific bent from an early ages; during sermons in church they would compete to see who could calculate in his head the square root of the sum of the hymn numbers to the great number of decimal places. He won a scholarship to Marlborough School, passed out top of his year at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich and was commissioned in the Royal Engineers in 1917. He went to France with 94 Field Company, RE, but he was still at base when the war ended.
the nine months spent with 14 company RE in the Wana Column in Waziristan. This campaign has been described as the most dangerous and costly in the history of the NW Frontier with Afghanistan - where prisoners met a most unpleasant fate. After one action Guy was the only officer to return alive. He was mentioned in despatches.
In 1921 Guy joined the Survey of India where he was to remain until the outbreak of war, apart from the years 1922-1924 when he read for an engineering degree at the University of Cambridge, graduating with first class honours (with distinction). It was here that he established himself as a geodesist of the highest caliber and his fruitful collaboration and partnership with the late Dr. J. de Graaff-Runter, CIE, FRS, enabled the Survey of India to remain second to none in the geodetic fields in practical field-work as well as in research. In 1932 he was in charge of the survey of the Persia-Baluchistan border but his most lasting contributions were probably in geoidal surveys and in developing methods of adjustment of triangulation on a continental scale - in pre-computer day of course, using log tables or hand-operated calculating machine. Under his supervision India was the first country of any size to make systematic and closely spaced observations of deviation of the vertical for the purpose of drawing a map of geoid contours. In 1935 he helped to found the Indian National Academy of Science, becoming a fellow.
During the second world war Guy again served with distinction in the survey branch of the Royal Engineers in the Middle and Far East, being made Deputy Director of Survey, South West Pacific Command in Java in 1941, Deputy Director of Survey for both Eastern and Southern Commands of India from 1942- 1945, Director of Survey South EastAsia, Command in 1946, and being made OBE. In 1941 he served with PAI (Persia and Iraq) Force which occupied those countries being responsible for its mapping requirements. Later that year he established a small survey group in Burma. When the Japanese invaded he buried his records at Nyitkina and then had to walk hundreds of miles under the most extreme conditions to reach India. When 14th Army re-took Burmay he was responsible for the mapping of the whole campaign. When Singapore was re-occupied his Burmese records which had been found by the Japanese, were recovered.
In 1947 Guy retired from the army and was appointed Reader in Surveying and Geodesy at the University of Oxford, a post he held until retirement in 1966. Here he led a very full life, serving as a member of the Land Surveyors' Committee of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, its Chairman and a member of Council from 1953-1961, and as a member of the Geodesy Sub-Committee of the (Royal Society) National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics from 1947-1962, its Chairmen and a member of the National Committee from 1962-1968. He computed all the projections for the new Oxford Atlas, some of which were of his own devising. But one of his major works was the writing of his book Geodesy, first published in 1962. with second, third and fourth revised and enlarged editions being published at approximately ten year intervals the last two being after retirement. This rapidly gained international fame as being a model of brevity and lucidity as well as being the most complete and authoritative book on the subject at the time. It also received the accolade of being translated into Russian.
In addition to the above Guy was very active in the IAG. It was a largely due to his influence and pre-war work in India that the importance of geoidal survey was recognized and that field-work was undertaken in many parts of the world. Two major tasks he completed were the Bomford map of Geoid Contours on European Datum and the readjustment of the Triangulation of South East Asia. He was successively President of the Special Study Group on the Geoid, President of Section V (Geoid), Vice-President and then President of the Association from 1963-1967.
As a young man Guy played rugby football; later he became a philatelist and a paleontologist, specializing in Ammonites which he collected on his annual holidays in Dorset. His collection became internationally renowned and one of the new ammonites he found was named Parkinsonia bomfordi. At the age of 92 he was invited by the Director of (Military) Survey at the Ministry of Defence to open a new building at his headquarters - named the Bomford Building. He is survived by his widows two sons and a son by a former marriage. Dr A. R. Robbins
Erik Tengström (1913-1996)
On April 2 1996, one day before his 83th anniversary, Dr. Erik Tengström died after a few weeks of complications after a surgical operation. Thereby IAG lost one of its very active members in the past. Erik Tengström was born in Motala as the son of Gymnasium Lecturer Carl-Gustav Tengström and his wife Gertrud. One of his ancestors was Jacob Tengström (1755-1832), the first archbishop of Finland.
In 1932 he entered the University of Stockholm, where he received his B.Sc. in combining the subjects of astronomy, physics and geography. Having early plans to become an astronomer, he went on to receive his M. Sc. degree and studied towards a ph. Licentiate degree in this field. However, in the meantime he changed his carrier as he started to work under professor C.A. Rune at the Geographical Survey Office of Sweden (RAK). Under Rune's supervision hee got his Licantiate degree in geodesy in 1952, and two years later, after defending his thesis on the determination of the geoid over Sweden by Rudzki type gravity anomalies, he got the doctor's degree.
In his professional carrier he started in 1937 as a teacher in mathematics, mechanics , physics and geodesy at Stockholm Technical Institute and later as assistant and teacher at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. From 1949 to 1955 he was a state geodesist at RAK. From 1954 he was a reader with Uppsala University, an from 1962 he was a senior researcher with the Swedish Natural Science Research Council. Finally, in 1968 he was appointed Research Professor.
His scientific production covers about 60 papers and reports in the fields of gravimetry, physical geodesy, astronomical geodesy, mathematical geodesy, satellite geodesy, atmospheric refraction, surveying, geodynamics and general reviews. Besides formal papers Erik has been an invited speaker at a number of scientific meetings in the Nordic countries and around the world. He held research fellowships at the Ohio State University in 1959 and at the University of Hawaii in 1973. He acted as faculty opponent and referee on numerous occasions within the Nordic countries, Switzerland and the U. S.
Erik Tengström's services for the IAG can be summarized as follows. Between 1960 and 1971 he was the chairman of SSG 5.16 dealing with the Mediterranean and West Alp geoid, then chaired SSG 1.23 and SSG1.42 on refraction studies. Later he chaired SSG 4.65 concerning the force functions of two, three and more body problems. From 1963 to 1971 he was also the President of Section V and from 1979 to 1983 the second Vice President of IAG.
Erik Tengström's great dream was to establish geodesy at Uppsala University. Subsequently, in 1962 he founded the Department of Geodesy with its facilities located on a hill at Hällby 3 km northwest of Uppsala. During the exciting years following the launch of the first Sputnik in 1957, the team at Hällby participated in several pioneer satellite positioning campaigns. Through the years numerous colleagues within the IAG have enjoyed the inspiring atmosphere at Hällby, and several, later well-known, candidates received their Ph.D. under Tengström's supervision.
Erik Tengström will be remembered for his everlasting good spirit, encouragement of students and cooperative efforts in many scientific projects. At his 70th anniversary his cooperation with Finnish astronomers was honored by a gift by the Academy of Åbo (in his ancestor's hometown) that he was particularly proud of.. His early interest in astronomy and earth sciences had finally immortalized "Tengström", as an asteroid was named after him.
Lars E. Sjbberg
Report on the European Radio Navigation Plain (ERNP) Meeting held in Brussels, Belgium, May 20-22, 1996
A first meeting of the ERNP has been organized in Brussels, Belgium from May 20-22, 1996. The purpose of this meeting was to modify and finalize a first draft document established in advance by a Steering Committee on the base of individual National European Radio Navigation Plans. This document is focused oil the user requirement point of view and could be the base of a common strategy for Radio Navigation in the future
It refers both to the augmentation of the present GPS and GLONASS Systems (through Geostationary satellites - GNSS-1 step) and also to the possibility of the development of a new independent European Radio Navigation System (the GNSS-2 step).
In total, almost 60 people participated to this meeting in different field of expertise Systems Descriptions, Road User. Requirements and Applications, Rail & Public, User. Requirements and Applications, Aviation User Requirements and Applications, Survey User Requirements and Applications, Other user Requirements and Applications, Institutional Issues, RTD&D Actions, Cost Recovery, Cost Benefit and Economic Issues
Even if the main purpose is navigation applications, the geodesy (survey) contributes to the ERNP as a Provider of a European reference frame and furthermore survey applications are also foreseen, in particular, new type of survey applications must be taken into account : not only classical static methods but also rapid static or kinematic applications (in a past processing or in real-time mode).
A second meeting of the ERNP is already planned for May 29-30, 1996 to finalize the first version of this document (regularly updated every two years or so) before sending it to the Ad Hoc European group.
This recent book by G. Hake and D. Grünreich is devoted to the broad and fascinating field of general and applied cartography. This scientific area was subject to great changes and enlargements within the last decade which can be mainly traced back to the developments in computer technology and the increased demands in particular with respect to geoinformation data processing. Therefore it was only a question of time before a completely revised and enlarged edition of this very successful book (the previous edition was published in 1982) was published. It is no exaggeration to state that the material presented herein has been excellently selected. It represents the actual state of the art in the branch of cartography in both scientific and practical aspects.
The book is split up into three parts the first of which ("General Cartography") covers more than 350 pages. Part II treats the topics of "Applied Cartography" on about 150 pages while part III is devoted to the historical development of cartography on about 30 pages. Abbreviations, german industrial standards and a list of special characters follow in three appendices. A 27 page bibliography and a 19 page index complete the "work of art". Based on this division the book is easy to read and special topics can quickly be found. More that 300 figures accompany the presented cartographic models or explain how cartographic processes or algorithms function. On the other hand it is greatly appreciated that for more detailed informations the authors refer to the bibliography containing more than 650 entries. This clears one's view for the more general aspects of cartography. As a conclusion the book can be recommended to every-one who is interested in cartography. Students in the fields of surveying, geography and cartography as well as more experienced scientists and researchers will find the book valueable to read. The only disadvantage is that the book is not (yet) available in english.
Wackernagel, H.: Multivariate Geostatistics. An introduction with applications. 256 pages. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York 1995, ISBN 3-540-60127-9.
This book is an introduction to kriging, a geostatistical method used traditionally in mining industry. It consists of 30 sections in 5 parts (A-E). Part A is a short introduction to the basic statistical concepts. Part B starts with a construction of a variogram cloud from the measurements and a discussion about a model, the theoretical variogram. A theoretical variogram can be obtained from the covariance function (if it exists), but not necessarily. Next section contains an interesting general discussion about dealing with anisotropy in covariance models. It is followed by a detailed discussion about the effect of change of support (averaging).
Part B ends with 7 short sections in which different types of kriging are introduced and illustrated by examples. Part C is very short and deals with three (descriptive) techniques of multivariate analysis: Principal Component Analysis, Canonical Analysis and Correspondence Analysis. Part D deals with multivariate geostatistics, i.e. joint prediction from different types of spatially distributed data. Surprisingly, the concept of covariance propagation (which is so important in physical geodesy for obtaining cross-covariance models) is not mentioned. Instead, more general (and difficult) problems are discussed, namely, techniques for obtaining cross-covariance models directly from empirical data.
In the final 2 sections of part D, kriging methods for complex stochastic processes are discussed. The bilinear coregionalization model can be used for analysing multivariate time series with time delay-problems. Part E is an introduction to non-stationary geostatistics. The non-stationarity stems from the drift function (i.e. a function describing the mathematical expectation of the stochastic variables for different locations), which is not necessarily a constant. The residuals are, however, realizations of a zero-mean stationary stochastic process. Kriging with external drift is a method in which external independent (deterministic) information can be merged into joint prediction. This book is not for the beginners. 200 pages are simply not sufficient to get a good balance between the introduction of various concepts, the examples, the mathematical theory and the exercises. To compensate for this the book contains: an extensive list of references, a mathematical tutorial and the exercises with solutions.
Furthermore, each section is initiated with a short overview. Unfortunately, there is quite a substantial number of misprints and the equations are not numbered. For a physical geodesist who is familiar with the fundamental concepts from the theory of stochastic processes and with the method of collocation (but not specifically with kriging) it is both informative and beneficial to learn about these marvellous techniques which have so much in common with the applied methods of our branch of science. What a great source of inspiration!