THE INTERNATIONAL GPS SERVICE (IGS)
1995 TO 1999
REPORT TO THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF GEODESY
ADVANCED SPACE TECHNOLOGY SECTION II

 

IGS Central Bureau 

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

4800 Oak Grove Drive

Pasadena, CA 91109-8099

http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov

 

ABSTRACT

The International GPS Service (IGS), formerly the International GPS Service for Geodynamics, is an approved service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) since 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide a service to support, through GPS data products, geodetic and geophysical research activities. This report will chronicle the past four years of history of the IGS. (See the IAG Travaux 1996, Tome 30 edited by P. Willis for the report on the formative years of the IGS).

KEY DEVELOPMENTS OF THE IGS 1995-1999

1995 - The ‘Special Topics and New Directions Workshop’ held at GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Germany in May initiated the extension of the IGS to various applications, especially exploring atmospheric and climate monitoring. Discussions and decisions at this meeting resulted in shortening IGS Rapid Orbit Production in 1996 and planning for the production of predicted orbits. First meeting between the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) and IGS at the GLOSS (Global Ocean Observing System) meeting in Bordeaux, France investigating the use of GPS and the IGS for monitoring sea level. Number of stations in IGS network: 112.

1996 - IGS became a recognized service of the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services (FAGS). A ‘Call for Participation’ was released in January for IGS Regional Network Associate Analysis Centers (RNAAC) for the regional densification of the terrestrial reference frame in support of the ITRF. The IGS Predicted Orbit Combination was made available in early March. The Silver Spring Analysis Center Workshop in March dealt with a variety of issues such as orbit and clock combination processes, phase-centers values and antenna calibration, EOPs, ionospheric and tropospheric applications, etc. A standard format termed ‘Solution INdependent Exchange Format’ (SINEX) was adopted as the exchange format for submission of analysis centers solutions into a global combination enabling the IGS ‘polyhedron’ solution. Rather than simultaneous processing of all stations data in rapidly growing global and regional networks, this approach permits the combination of multi-station solutions produced by different analysis centers (today this is being extended to a multi-technique solutions). During June significant processing changes with IGS orbits occurred when the IGS combinations discontinued polar motion alignment of the different analysis centers (AC) orbit solutions. IGS AC polar motion precision at or below 0.1mas. Number of stations in IGS network: 144 stations.

1997 - The Analysis Center Workshop in March in Pasadena focused on the potential of low Earth orbiter applications within the IGS and interest in GLONASS data handling/analysis within the IGS infrastructure. First joint workshop between the PSMSL and the IGS held in Pasadena, CA. IGS hosted a GLOSS GRE meeting after the joint workshop. The Pilot Project for Precise Time and Time Transfer joint with the Bureau de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was given conceptual approval at the Governing Board meeting in Rio De Janeiro. The first IGS retreat was held in Napa Valley in December generating many recommendations for continued improvement of the service. IGS analysis focused on length of day/UT and clock correction combinations. In order to facilitate combined prediction products the IGS Rapid orbit delivery was pushed from 24 to 22 hours. Best orbit solutions at or below 5 cm for Final solutions, and 5-10 cm for Rapid solutions. Prediction orbit precision RMS median of ~50cm compared to the Broadcast orbit at ~200cm. Number of stations in IGS network: 167 Stations.

1998 - Two key and successful workshops were held this year, the Analysis Center Workshop in February in Darmstadt and the Network Systems Workshop held in November in Annapolis. A number of recommendations resulted from each workshop and are contained in the respective workshop proceedings (see IGS Publication list below). The list of IGS fiducial sites for reference frame control were expanded from the original 13 to 47 stations. Call for Participation in the International Glonass Experiment (IGEX) joint with CSTG was announced. Reorganization of the Central Bureau (CB) was initiated due to IGS Napa Valley ‘97 retreat recommendations, including establishment of the IGS Network Coordinator within the CB. The IGS Annual Report Series was revised to a two volume document, the summary Annual Report and a detailed companion volume documenting the IGS Technical Reports for each year. At the May meeting of the Governing Board in Boston, a policy was adopted for the establishment of IGS projects and working groups. At the December meeting in San Francisco a number of changes took place: the Terms of Reference revised under the guidance of Prof. Ivan Mueller was adopted; working group chairs and project heads become non-voting members of the Governing Board; and Prof. Christoph Reigber of GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam, Germany was unanimously elected as Chairman of the IGS Governing Board, succeeding Prof. Gerhard Beutler from the University of Bern, Switzerland. Prof. Beutler served as Chair of the IGS Oversight Committee (1991-1993) and as Chair of the IGS Governing Board for five years (1994-1998). The responsibilities of Analysis Coordinator transferred from Dr. Jan Kouba of Natural Resources of Canada to Dr. Tim Springer of the University of Bern, Switzerland. Jan Kouba was the AC Coordinator since 1993 and is largely credited with fostering the incredible cooperation and friendly competition of the ACs that resulted in the continual improvement of IGS products. IGS orbits in 1998 continue at the ~5cm level, while some of the best analysis centers are approaching the 3cm level of orbit precision. Adoption of the 47 stations for fiducial control earlier in the year resulted in marked improvement in orbits, AC clocks, ERP and coordinate solutions. IGS subnetwork concept was established, and the flow of hourly GPS data files was formalized. Number of stations in IGS network: 200 stations (see Figure 1).

1999 - In March an IGS workshop dedicated to low Earth orbiter (LEO) missions was held at GFZ Potsdam, Germany. This was a pivotal workshop for the IGS raising questions and increasing awareness of the potential role that IGS could play for operational support of LEO satellites with on-board GPS flight receivers for purposes of precise orbit determination, atmospheric occultation, ionospheric tomography and how these observations will be used by the atmospheric and meteorological community. In June the first meeting of the new Governing Board under the leadership of Prof. Reigber was held one day prior to the Analysis Center workshop in San Diego, California. The workshop focused on real-time applications and long term stability and accuracy. The ‘Travaux" in the year 2003 will be able to describe the resulting status of recommendations stemming from the past three IGS workshops. That there have been three IGS workshops in only eight months demonstrates an unusually active period! (starting with the Network Workshop in November of 1998).

Figure 1. Station locations of the IGS Tracking Network, July 1999.

 

 
 
Igs governing Board MEMBERS AND INSTITUTIONS 1999
TOTAL SERVICE
MEMBER
INSTITUTION & COUNTRY
FUNCTIONS
TERM
(current: 4 years)
Christoph Reigber
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany
Chair, Appointed (IGS)
1999-2002
Gerhard Beutler
University of Bern, Switzerland
Appointed (IAG)
1996-1999
Mike Bevis
University of Hawaii, USA
Appointed (IGS)
1998-2001
Geoff Blewitt
University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Analysis Center Representative
1998-2001
Yehuda Bock
Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, USA
Analysis Center Representative
1996-1999
Claude Boucher
Institut Geographique National, ITRF, France
IERS Representative to IGS
---
John Dow
ESA/European Space Operations Center, Germany
Network Representative
1996-1999
Bjorn Engen
Statens Kartverk, Norway
Network Representative 
1998-2001
Joachim Feltens
ESA/European Space Operations Center, Germany
Ionosphere Working Group Chair
1999-2000
Remi Ferland
Natural Resources Canada
IGS Reference Frame Coordinator
1999-2000
Gerd Gendt
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany
Troposphere Working Group Chair
1999-2000
Jan Kouba 
Natural Resources Canada
Analysis Center Representative
1996-1999
John Manning 
Australian Survey and Land Information Group
Appointed (IGS)
1996-1999
Bill Melbourne 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
IGS Representative to IERS
---
Ivan Mueller
Ohio State University, USA
IAG Representative
1996-1999
Ruth Neilan
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
Director of IGS Central Bureau
---
Carey Noll
Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
Data Center Representative
1998-2001
Jim Ray
U. S. Naval Observatory, USA
Precise Time Transfer Project, Chair
1999-2000
Tim Springer
University of Bern, Switzerland
Analysis Center Coordinator
1999-2000
Robert Serafin
Natl. Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
Appointed (IGS)
1998-2001
Michael Watkins
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
Low Earth Orbiter Working Group Chair
1999-2000
Pascal Willis
Institut Geographique National, France
International GLONASS Experiment CSTG/IGS Chair
1999-2000
 
 
FORMER Igs governing Board MEMBERS AND INSTITUTIONS
TOTAL SERVICE
Martine Feissel 
International Earth Rotation Service, France
1994-1995
Teruyuki Kato
ERI, University of Tokyo, Japan
1994-1995
Gerry Mader 
Geosciences Reasearch and Development Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA
1994-1997
David Pugh
Southhampton Oceanography Center, UK
1996-1998
Bob Schutz 
Center for Space Research, University of Texas-Austin, USA
1994-1997
Table 1. The IGS Governing Board Members and Former Members, terms as noted. Terms begin on January 1 of the stated year and conclude on December 31 of the stated year. Terms of office are generally 4 years for the elected members, and two years for working group or project chairs.

 

ORGANIZATION OF THE IGS

The history and development of the IGS demonstrate the unique capability of international groups and agencies to work successfully together for a common goal. In the organization of the IGS, each component has specific responsibilities, and each is dependent on the others to meet performance standards in order for the whole system to operate smoothly and effectively.

The organization of the IGS is depicted in Figure 2. The satellites of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System are shown in the upper left corner of the figure. The GPS stations shown below the satellites are permanently installed and operate continuously receiving and recording the L-band, dual-frequency signals transmitted by the 24 NAVSTAR GPS satellites. The station data is accessed by Operational Data Centers (see Table 2) through various communication schemes, and the Operational Centers monitor and validate the data, format it according to standards and forward the data sets to the Regional or Global Data Centers. The Regional Data Centers collect all data of interest to people in a particular region, while the IGS Global Data Centers provide primary access and archiving for IGS data and products. The Analysis Centers (Table 3) retrieve the data sets from the Global Data Centers and each produce GPS ephemerides, station coordinates, and earth rotation parameters. These products are then sent to the Analysis Center Coordinator who uses an orbit combination technique to produce the official IGS orbits. The products are sent to the Global Data Centers and the Central Bureau for archival and access by users. IGS Associate Analysis Centers are groups producing special products such as station positions and velocities, ionospheric maps, etc. (Table 4 lists the GNAACs and RNAACs). Working groups and projects (Table 5) are groups with initiative to build on the structure of the IGS for further scientific applications. The Central Bureau acts as the executive arm of the Governing Board and is responsible for the overall coordination and management of the service; the International Governing Board is the oversight body that actively makes decisions determining the activities and direction of the IGS. IGS Associate Members (Table 6) are those people who spend a significant part of the work supporting IGS processes, they are also responsible for electing specific representatives to the Governing Board.

 

IGS NETWORK STATIONS

The IGS network consists of GPS stations that observe the GPS satellites on a continuous, 24-hour basis. These globally distributed stations are funded, implemented and operated by one of the IGS participating agencies shown in Table 7. At the end of 1998, 167 stations were listed as part of the IGS network. These stations have precision geodetic quality dual-frequency GPS receivers and ancillary equipment that enable transmission of the data set within a one hour to a few hours. Currently, the classic data files span a 24-hour period with 30 second data samples. A subset of the IGS network is generating hourly data files at the 30-second sample rate, and a similar subset is operating at 1-second samples in support of high-rate applications such as the LEO missions.

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the organization of the IGS depicts addition of Associate Analysis Centers, Working Groups, Pilot Projects and the new Network Coordinator role within the Central Bureau.
 
Operational Data Centers  
ASI Italian Space Agency
AUSLIG Australian Surveying and Land Information Group
AWI Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, France
DUT Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
ESOC European Space Agency (ESA) Space Operations Center, Germany
GFZ GeoForschungsZentrum, Germany
GSI Geographical Survey Institute, Japan
ISR Institute for Space Research, Austria
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
KAO Korean Astronomical Observatory
NGI National Geography Institute, Korea
NIMA National image and Mapping Agency, USA
NMA Norwegian Mapping Authority
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA
NRCan Natural Resources of Canada
RDAAC  Russian Data Analysis and Archive Center
SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
UNAVCO University NAVSTAR Consortium
USGS United States Geological Survey
Regional Data Centers  
AUSLIG Australian Surveying and Land Information Group
BKG Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodasie, Germany
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA
NRCan Natural Resources of Canada
Global Data Centers  
CDDIS Crustal Dynamics Data Information System, NASA GSFC, USA
IGN Institut Geographique National, France
SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
Table 2. Data Centers Supporting the IGS in 1999.

 

IGS Analysis Centers  
CODE Astronomical Institute-University of Bern Switzerland
European Space Operations Center / European Space Agency Germany
FLINN Analysis Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech,NASA USA
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Germany 
National Geodetic Survey, Geosciences Research Lab, NOAA USA
Natural Resources Canada Canada
Scripps Institution of Oceanography USA
Table 3. The Seven IGS Analysis Centers.
 
GLOBAL NETWORK (GNAAC)  
Jet Propulsion Laboratory USA
Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA
University of Newcastle UK
   
REGIONAL NETWORK CENTERS FOR THE DENSIFICATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL REFERENCE FRAME 

(RNAACS)

Australian Survey & Land Information Group (AUSLIG) Australia
EUREF-IAG Commission X - Global and Regional Geodetic Networks, Subcommission for Europe (European Coordinating RNAAC):  
Centers within EUREF:  
Bundesamt fur Landestopographie (L+T) 
Switzerland
Center for Orbit Determination in Europe
Switzerland
Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP)
Czech Republic
Bundesampt für Kartographie und Geodæsie (BKG)
Germany
International Commission for Global Geodesy  

of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences 

Germany
Nordic Geodetic Commision 
Scandinavia
Nuova Telespazio S.p.A., Space Geodesy Center 
Italy
Observatory Lustbuehel Graz 
Austria
Royal Observatory of Belgium 
Belgium
Warsaw University of Technology 
Poland Geographical Survey Institute of Japan Japan Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska  USA Onsala Space Observatory  Sweden Pacific Geosciences Center Canada SIRGAS, Deutsches Geodatishes Forschungsinstitut  Germany Table 4. IGS Associate Analysis Centers for Reference Frame Densification.

 
 
IGS Working Groups and Pilot Projects  
  Chair Agency & Country
IGS Reference Frame Coordinator Remi Ferland NRCan, Canada
IGS/BIPM Time Transfer Project Jim Ray, Co-Chair, IGS,  US Naval Observatory, USA
  Gerard Petit, Co-Chair BIPM, France
Working Group on IGS Ionosphere Products Joachim Feltens European Space Operations Center, Germany
IGS Combination of Tropospheric Estimates Gerd Gendt GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam(GFZ)
Working Group on Low-Earth Orbiters  Michael Watkins Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
International GLONASS Experiment (IGEX) 

Joint with CSTG 

Pascal Willis Institut Geographique National ENSG/LAREG
Tide Gauges, CGPS, and the IGS (Seed Activity) Mike Bevis University of Hawaii
  Phil Woodworth Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, UK
Table 5. Working Groups and Pilot Projects established by the IGS

 

 

 
 
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS OF THE IGS, JUNE 1999
First
Last Name Institution
Zuheir
Altamimi Institut Geographique National, Paris, France
Boudewijn
Ambrosius Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Yoaz
Bar-Sever Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
John
Beavan Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand
Gerhard
Beutler Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
Mike
Bevis University of Hawaii
Geoff
Blewitt University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Graeme
Blick Land Information New Zealand
Yehuda
Bock Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA, USA
Claude
Boucher Institut Geographique National, Paris, France
Carine
Bruyninx Royal Observatory of Belgium
Alessandro
Caporali University of Padova, Italy
Miranda
Chin Geosciences Research and Development Lab, National Geodetic Survey, USA
Loic
Daniel Institut Geographique National, Paris, France
Jeff
Dean Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA, USA
John
Dow European Space Operations Center, Germany
Herb
Dragert Pacific Geoscience Center, Geological Survey of Canada, NRCan, Canada
Herman
Drewes Deutsches Geodäetisches Forschungsinstitut, Munich, Germany
Maurice
Dube Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
Robert
Duval Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Bjorn
Engen Statens Kartverk, Norwegian Mapping Authority, Honefoss, Norway
Peng
Fang Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA, USA
Martine
Feissel Paris Observatory, International Earth Rotation Service, Paris, France
Joachim
Feltens European Space Operations Center, Germany
Meng-hua
Feng National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing, China
Remi
Ferland Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Luis Paulo
Fortes Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia de Estatistica, Brazil
Roman
Galas GeoforschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany
Daniel
Gambis Paris Observatory, International Earth Rotation Service, Paris, France
Carlos
Garcia-Martinez European Space Operations Center, Germany
Gerd
Gendt GeoforschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany
Ramesh
Govind Australian Survey and Land Information Group, Canberra, Australia
Werner
Gurtner  Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
Heinz
Habrich Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Germany
Rune
Hanssen Statens Kartverk, Norwegian Mapping Authority, Honefoss, Norway
Yuki
Hatanaka Geographical Survey Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
Michael
Heflin Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Martin
Hendy Australian Survey and Land Information Group, Canberra, Australia
Pierre
Heroux Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Thomas
Herring Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, USA
David 
Jefferson Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Jan
Johansson Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden
Teruyuki
Kato Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan
Mark
Kaufman Institute for Metrology of Time and Space, Mendeleevo, Russia
Jan
Kouba  Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Ulf
Lindqwister Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Jingnan
Liu Wuhan Technical University, China
Rob
Liu Raytheon STX, Pasadena, CA, USA
Chi-cheng
Liu Institute of Earth Science, Academy of Science, Taiwan
Gerry
Mader  Geosciences Research and Development Lab, National Geodetic Survey, USA
Bo
Madsen NationalSurvey and Cadastre, Copenhagen, Sweden
John
Manning  Australian Survey and Land Information Group, Canberra, Australia
Tomas
Martin-Mur European Space Operations Center, Germany
Dennis
McCarthy U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C., USA
Chuck
Meertens University NAVSTAR Consortium, Boulder, CO, USA
Bill
Melbourne  Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Yves
Mireault Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Ivan
Mueller Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio USA
Angelyn
Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Ruth
Neilan Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Carey
Noll Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
Pil-ho
Park Korean Astronomy Observatory, Taejon, Korea
Matti
Paunonen Finnish Geodetic Institute,Helsinki, Finland
Peter
Pesec Insitute for Space Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria
Hans-Peter
Plag Statens Kartverk, Norwegian Mapping Authority, Honefoss, Norway
Jim
Ray US Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C., USA
Svein
Rekkedal Statens Kartverk, Norwegian Mapping Authority, Honefoss, Norway
Christoph
Reigber GeoforschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany
Chris
Rocken University NAVSTAR Consortium, Boulder, CO, USA
Markus
Rothacher Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
Mark
Schenewerk Geosciences Research and Development Lab, National Geodetic Survey, USA
Wolfgang
Schlueter Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Germany
Mike
Schmidt Pacific Geoscience Center, Geological Survey of Canada, NRCan, Canada
Bob
Schutz  Center for Space Reserach, Univ. of Texas-Austin, USA
Bob
Serafin National Center for Atmospheric Research
Andrew
Sinclair Royal Greenwich Observtory, UK
Jim
Slater National imagery and Mapping Agency, Washington, D.C., USA
Janusz
Sledzinski Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Tim
Springer Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
David
Stowers Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Suryia
Tatevian Astronomical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences
Pierre
Tetreault Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Francesco
Vespe Italian Space Agency, Matera, Italy
Mike
Watkins Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Urs
Wild Bundesamt für Landestopographie (Federal Topography), Switzerland
Pascal
Willis Institut Geographique National, Paris, France
Shuhua
Ye Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Vjacheslav
Zalutsky East-Siberian Research Institute for Physico- and Radiotechnical Measurements, Irkutsk, Russia 
Wen-yao
Zhu Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, China
James
Zumberge Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Table 6. Associate Members of the IGS dated June 1999.
 
CONTRIBUTING AGENCIES OF THE IGS 1999
AIUB
Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
ALO
Astronomical Latitude Observatory, Poland
AWI
Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany
AUSLIG
Australian Survey and Land Information Group, Australia
BKG
Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Germany
BfL
Bundesamt für Landestopographie (Federal Topography), Switzerland
CSR
Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin, USA
CNES
Centre National de Etudes, Toulouse, France
CEE
Centro de Estudios Espaciales, Chile
CICESE
Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico
CAS
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
CDDIS
Crustal Dynamics Data Information System, GSFC/NASA, USA
CMMACS
CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation, Bangalore, India
DUT
Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
DLR/DFD
Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V., Neustrelitz, Germany
ERI
Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan
VS NIIFTRI
East-Siberian Research Institute for Physicotechnical and Radiotechnical Measurements, Irkutsk, Russia 
ESA
European Space Agency, Germany
ESOC
European Space Operations Center, Germany
FGI
Finnish Geodetic Institute, Finland
FOMI
FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Budapest, Hungary
GOPE
Geodetic Observatory Pecny, Ondrejov, Czech Republic
GSD
Geodetic Survey Division, NRCan, Canada
GFZ
GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany
GSI
Geographical Survey Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
GIUA
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA
GRDL
Geosciences Research and Development Laboratory, NOAA, Silver Spring, MD, USA
GSFC
Goddard Space Flight Center / NASA, USA
HRAO
Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, South Africa
IRIS
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, USA
ICC
Institut Cartografic de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
IGN
Institut Geographique National, Paris, France
IMVP
Institute for Metrology of Time and Space, GP VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo, Russia
ISAS
Institute for Space and Astronautic Science, Sagamihara, Japan
ISRO
Institute for Space Research Observatory, Graz, Austria
IAA
Institute of Applied Astronomy, St. Petersburg , Russia
INASAN
Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
IESAS
Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
IGNS
Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand
IBGE
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia de Estatistica, Brazil
INPE
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil
IDA
International Deployment of Accelerometers / IRIS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
ASI
Italian Space Agency, Matera, Italy
JPL
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
KAO
Korean Astronomy Observatory, Taejon, Korea
KMS
Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen, National Survey and Cadastre, Denmark
LINZ
Land Information New Zealand, Wellington
MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA
NCAR
National Center for Atmospheric Research
NBSM
National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, China
NGRI
National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India
NIMA
National imagery and Mapping Agency, USA
INGM
National Institute in Geosciences, Mining and Chemistry (INGEOMINAS), Colombia
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA
NRCan
Natural Resources of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
ROB
Observatoire Royal de Belgium, Brussels, Belgium
OUAT
Olsztyn University of Agriculture and Technology, Poland
OSO
Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden
GSC
Pacific Geoscience Center, Geological Survey of Canada, NRCan, Canada
IERS
Paris Observatory, International Earth Rotation Service, Paris, France
POL
Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK
ROA
Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain
RGO
Royal Greenwich Observatory, UK
SIO
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA, USA
SAO
Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, China
SCIGN
Southern California Integrated GPS Network, USA
SK
Statens Kartverk, Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
SOEST
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii,USA 
UCAR
University Consortium for Atmospheric Research
USNO
U.S. Naval Observatory, USA
UFPR
University Federal de Parana, Brazil
UNAVCO
University Navstar Consortium, Boulder, CO, USA
UB
University of Bonn, Germany
CU
University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
NCL
University of Newcastle on Tyne, United Kingdom
UPAD
University of Padova, Italy
WUT
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
WING
Western Pacific Integrated Network of GPS, Japan
WTU
Wuhan Technical University, China
Table 7. Contributing Agencies of the International GPS Service 1999

 

IGS Publications

Available through the Central Bureau (address below). 1998 IGS Annual Report
IGS Central Bureau

IGS Workshop Proceedings: 1998 IGS Network Systems Workshop
November 2-5, 1998, Annapolis, Maryland USA
C. Noll (GSFC), K. Gowey, and R. E. Neilan, eds.

1997 IGS Annual Report
IGS Central Bureau

1997 Technical Reports
I. Mueller, R. Neilan, K. Gowey, eds.

International GPS Service (IGS): An Interdisciplinary Service in Support of Earth Sciences
G. Beutler, M. Rothacher, T. Springer, J. Kouba, R.E. Neilan
32nd COSPAR Scientic Assembly, Nagoya, Japan, July 12 to 19, 1998.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: 1998 Analysis Center Workshop
February 9-11, 1998, ESA/ESOC Darmstadt, Germany
J. M. Dow (ESA), J. Kouba (NRCan), T. Springer (AIUB), eds.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Sea Level
R. E. Neilan, P.A. Van Scoy, P. L.Woodworth, eds.
Pasadena, CA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997.

1996 IGS Annual Report
J. F. Zumberge, D. E. Fulton, and R. E. Neilan, eds.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: 1996 IGS Analysis Center Workshop
19-21 March 1996, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
R. E. Neilan, P. Van Scoy, and J. F. Zumberge, eds

1995 IGS Annual Report
J. F. Zumberge, M. P. Urban, R. Liu, and R. E. Neilan, eds.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: Special Topics and New Directions
15-18 May 1995, GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany
G. Gendt and G. Dick, eds.

1994 IGS Annual Report
J. F. Zumberge, R. Liu, and R. E. Neilan, eds.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: Densification of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame through Regional GPS Networks
30 November-2 December 1994, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA,
J. F. Zumberge and R. Liu, eds.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: 1993 IGS Analysis Center Workshop
12-14 October 1993, Geodetic Survey Division, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada
J. Kouba, ed.

IGS Workshop Proceedings: 1993 IGS Workshop
25-26 March 1993, Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland
G. Beutler and E. Brockmann, eds.

The publications listed above along with brochures, resource information package, and the IGS Directory (printed annually), are available upon request. Send your request and mailing address to: Carol Lorre

IGS Central Bureau

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, M/S 238-540

4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA

Phone: 818-354-2077

FAX: 818-393-6686

Email: carol.a.lorre@jpl.nasa.gov

These documents are also available at the IGS website (http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/pubs.html)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Central Bureau would like to thank G. Beutler and J. Kouba for their significant contribution to the IGS and their leadership in the past five years. Their influence will continue to be felt. We also acknowledge the contributions of the participating agencies worldwide which have made the IGS such a successful organization. Part of the work described in this report was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.